Orchestrated objective reduction - Wikipedia

The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses (Part 2)

How do you write a thesis by Hazel Wayman - issuu

ABSTRACT NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that binds to the promoter sequence “antioxidant responsive element (ARE) ” leading to coordinated up-regulation of AREdriven detoxification and antioxidant genes. Since the expression of a wide array of antioxidant and detoxification genes are positively regulated by the ARE sequence, Nrf2 may serve as a master regulator of the ARE-driven cellular defense system against oxidative stress. In support of this, numerous studies have shown that Nrf2 protects many cell types and organ systems from a broad spectrum of toxic insults and disease pathogenesis. This Nrf2-conferred, multi-organ protection phenomenon raises an interesting question about how a single protein can protect many different organs from various toxic insults. A possible molecular mechanism explaining this phenomenon is that Nrf2 protects many different cell types by coordinately up-regulating classic ARE-driven genes as well as cell type-specific target genes that are required for the defense system of each cell type in its unique environment. This hypothesis is supported by microarray data indicating the protective role of Nrf2 is conveyed through both known ARE-driven genes and novel cell type-specific genes. The widespread nature of Nrf2 may have an important therapeutic potential, allowing prevention of carcinogenesis and neurodegenerative diseases.—Lee, J.-M.,

Nothing But Net: The Science of Shooting Hoops

Background: We recently showed that an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-17, and the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) likely contributes to inflammation and salivary gland abnormalities in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein is a pivotal player in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. However, its status and role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in SS are not established. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that SS is associated with reduced GILZ expression, thereby contributing to Del-1/Il-17 imbalance and inflammation in salivary glands. Methods: We utilized the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease as well as lower-lip biopsy samples of subjects without or with a diagnosis of SS in association with immunostaining studies. These studies were complemented with in vitro and flow-cytometry studies whereby interleukin (IL)-23-treated salivary gland cells were co-cultured with GILZ-expressing cells or control cells; IL-23 is known to increase generation of IL-17. Results: Salivary glands of NOD mice displayed marked leukocyte infiltration and reduced GILZ expression in association with increased IL-17 but decreased Del-1 expression. A similar pattern was observed for lower-lip biopsy samples of SS than non-SS subjects. Further, IL-23-treated salivary gland cells displayed marked increase in IL-17 but reduced Del-1 positive cells which were reversed with co-culturing with GILZ-expressing cells but not control cells. Collectively, the results are suggestive of dysregulation of GILZ playing a role in inflammation and associated Del-1/Il-17 imbalance in SS. Conclusions: Complementing our demonstration of Del-1/IL-17 imbalance in salivary glands in SS, the present study has established the relevance and significance of GILZ as a novel predictive and prognostic molecular fingerprint for SS. Thus, assessment of minor salivary gland GILZ expression, in conjunction with Del-1/IL-17 imbalance, could potentially offer a more sensitive approach to help with diagnosis of SS, at early stage of the disease, than that based on leukocyte infiltration. Future studies should establish whether treatment with GILZ ameliorates signs and symptoms of salivary malfunction of SS for which effective treatment options remain elusive.

N2 - Background: We recently showed that an imbalance between the pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-17, and the developmental endothelial locus-1 (Del-1) likely contributes to inflammation and salivary gland abnormalities in Sjögren's syndrome (SS). The glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein is a pivotal player in mediating the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. However, its status and role in salivary gland inflammation and dysfunction in SS are not established. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that SS is associated with reduced GILZ expression, thereby contributing to Del-1/Il-17 imbalance and inflammation in salivary glands. Methods: We utilized the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of SS-like disease as well as lower-lip biopsy samples of subjects without or with a diagnosis of SS in association with immunostaining studies. These studies were complemented with in vitro and flow-cytometry studies whereby interleukin (IL)-23-treated salivary gland cells were co-cultured with GILZ-expressing cells or control cells; IL-23 is known to increase generation of IL-17. Results: Salivary glands of NOD mice displayed marked leukocyte infiltration and reduced GILZ expression in association with increased IL-17 but decreased Del-1 expression. A similar pattern was observed for lower-lip biopsy samples of SS than non-SS subjects. Further, IL-23-treated salivary gland cells displayed marked increase in IL-17 but reduced Del-1 positive cells which were reversed with co-culturing with GILZ-expressing cells but not control cells. Collectively, the results are suggestive of dysregulation of GILZ playing a role in inflammation and associated Del-1/Il-17 imbalance in SS. Conclusions: Complementing our demonstration of Del-1/IL-17 imbalance in salivary glands in SS, the present study has established the relevance and significance of GILZ as a novel predictive and prognostic molecular fingerprint for SS. Thus, assessment of minor salivary gland GILZ expression, in conjunction with Del-1/IL-17 imbalance, could potentially offer a more sensitive approach to help with diagnosis of SS, at early stage of the disease, than that based on leukocyte infiltration. Future studies should establish whether treatment with GILZ ameliorates signs and symptoms of salivary malfunction of SS for which effective treatment options remain elusive.