Energy for the functioning of an ecosystem comes from the Sun.

Photosynthesis need light to work, so light therefore should speed up the rate of photosynthesis.

The role of root hairs in water absorption during photosynthesis.

As Dennis and I were receiving a harsh education in how the world really works, Brian was . When Brian , he was a leading voice regarding asteroid mining and space colonization. The reasons for that pursuit were several. The first was that if asteroids were mined, the energy spent to overcome Earth’s gravity would not be needed, so refining asteroids into their constituent elements (largely iron) would be far cheaper, energetically, than mining them on Earth and rocketing them into space. The second was that mining asteroids would not cause any of the environmental devastation that mining on Earth causes. The third was that new environments for humans would be created that would not disturb Earth’s beleaguered ecosystems. Brian’s work was some of the first on a practical, space-based Utopia. He was ahead of his time in more ways than one.

Photosynthesis and respiration in ecosystems - …

As previously stated, shale oil and tar sands have abysmally low EROIs, which are , but are presented today as some kind of magic answer to the USA's energy problems (in 2015, the oil price collapse was caused by the easy money policies of the central banks, and ). But, what does that mean, as far as what a person could witness in such a declining civilization? The impact of Canada's tar sands operations can provide a preview. Not only do Canada's tar sands operations (Source: Wikimedia Commons – google "tar sands Mordor" and view the image results):

On , replicators can make whatever anybody wants. That technology may also exist in the GCs’ treasure trove, but I am not specifically aware of it. Almost all that I know and feel comfortable reporting regarding those hoarded technologies are what fellow travelers have described, usually by directly telling me what they witnessed. The next chapter will present a vision in which manipulation on the nuclear level is not a regular practice, although I realize that it could well come to pass if it does not already exist, and that would make the next chapter’s vision potentially even more grand (or perilous). Also, although I have heard rumors of time travel as another sequestered technology, and some have made public claims of their involvement in time-travel experiments, I have not had any close fellow travelers confirm that to me from their direct personal experience, so I will also lay aside that possibility in the next chapter.

What role does photosynthesis play in a cave ecosystem

As the war continued, the Athenian hinterland was turned into a desert. Plato described the deforestation of , which remained barren until my lifetime, when the Greek government began to reforest it; many trees could only be planted by blasting holes in the limestone bedrock. When Attica's residents returned home after the Spartan occupation, they built their homes with a southern orientation to take advantage of sunlight, as wood was scarce. After five years of peace with Sparta subsequent to , Athens took to the offensive again and pretended to intervene in a war in Sicily to protect Ionian colonists, but they really did it to conquer Sicily and plunder its forests and other resources, and thereby build another naval fleet to conquer Sparta. The was a catastrophe for Athens, and it lost most of its navy. There were other setbacks and victories, but a starving and besieged Athens finally surrendered to the Spartans in 404 BCE. The environment around Athens could feed nothing but “bees,” and where wolves once abounded, not a rabbit could be found. As Athens slowly became the center of a wasteland, the changing perceptions could be seen in contemporary writing. When forests were plentiful in 700 BCE, Greek authors wrote of trees in pragmatic fashion or as impediments to progress. As the forests disappeared along with the ecosystems they supported, an ecological consciousness began to appear. Plato and Aristotle placed forests at the root of a civilization’s health, and . Conservation only became an idea when the environment had already been ruined by “progress." Numerous commentators of the day wrote about the connections between forests and a healthy water supply, and many clearly saw the relationship between deforestation, erosion, and desertification, including Plato. and his professional heir wrote about ecological ideas. Theophrastus could be considered the first ecological writer, and he had the beginnings of an ecosystems approach. He noted that when the region surrounding was deforested, it became dryer and warmer.

What important role do fungi play in many ecosystems

In the Fertile Crescent today, the ruins of hundreds of early cities are in their self-made deserts, usually buried under the silt of the erosion of exposed forest soils. As the Mediterranean Sea’s periphery became civilized, the same pattern was repeated; forests became semi-deserts and early cities were buried under silt. Before the rise of civilization, a forest ran from Morocco to Afghanistan, and only about 10% of the forest that still existed as late as 2000 BCE still remains. Everyplace that civilization exists today has been dramatically deforested. Humanity has since agriculture began. The only partial exceptions are places such as Japan, but they regenerated their forests by importing wood from foreign forests. North America and Asia have been supplying Japan with wood for generations. As civilizations wiped themselves out with their rapaciousness, some people were aware enough to lament what was happening, but they were a small minority. Usually lost in the anthropocentric view was the awesome devastation inflicted on other life forms. was only a prelude. Razing a forest to burn the wood and raise crops destroyed an entire ecosystem for short-term human benefit and left behind a lifeless desert when the last crops were wrenched from depleted soils. In the final accounting, the damage meted out to Earth’s other species, not other humans, may be humanity’s greatest crime. Humanity is the greatest destructive force on Earth since the , and our great task of devastating Earth and her denizens may be .