In a process called chemosynthesis, ..
When chimpanzees eat meat, they put large, tough leaves in their mouths. That helps them overachieve as meat eaters, as their teeth and jaws are poorly adapted for chewing meat. Mountain gorillas eat no meat at all. In the wild, great apes spend about half of their day chewing. Chimpanzees are the most carnivorous great ape, and although meat is the greatest treasure in chimpanzee societies, they often stop eating meat after chewing it for an hour or two and revert to fruit and other softer foods if they can get it. Chimpanzees when their staple, fruit, is scarce. Chimps have been seen killing monkeys, eating their organs, and then abandoning the carcasses to find more monkeys to kill. Organ meats and intestines are far easier to chew, and a poor meat chewer like a chimpanzee prefers soft meats. Just as chimpanzees prefer soft meats, predators will eat soft organs first and leave the tougher muscle for later, if they eat it at all. It depends on how plentiful the available flesh is, but the pattern across all predator groups is clear: eat the best, first, and leave the lesser quality foods to the end or let scavengers have them. It will always be a cost/benefit decision. All things being equal, the less time and energy needed to eat something, the sooner it will be eaten. If extra time and effort is needed to procure food, then the nutritional reward (primarily in energy) has to be exceptional to justify it. Evolutionary pressures have made animals into excellent accountants. The human sweet tooth is a relic of humanity’s fruit-eating ape heritage, and the desire for fatty foods reflects an adaptation to prefer that energy-richest of foods. Fat (made of hydrocarbons) is the ultimate energy windfall of all foods.
Originally Answered: What does excess reactant mean
This chapter will provide a somewhat detailed review of the Cryogenian Ice Age and its aftermath, including some of the hypotheses regarding it, evidence for it, and its outcomes, as the eon of complex life arose after it. The ran from about 850 mya to 635 mya. This review will sketch the complex interactions of life and geophysical processes, and the increasingly multidisciplinary methods being used to investigate such events, which are yielding new and important insights.
Social cohesion was not only attained by the benefits of social interactions, but also by punishments when freeloaders did not pull their economic weight in a society. Scientists have developed a concept called that is not altruistic (giving without an expectation of individual gain) at all, but more of a societal accounting concept. Universal cooperation is seen as good for all of society’s members, and acts of “altruism” will eventually be “reciprocated” by some member of the society, if not the member initially helped. A trait of UP is ensuring that and that cheaters are punished. The carrots and sticks of rewards and punishments are probably as old as the earliest social animals, but as with all areas like this, humans have achieved the most sophisticated behaviors.
Energy and the Human Journey: Where We Have Been; …
You know that in good deeds and obeying your Lord and seeking His pleasure is the real path to happiness and success, and as you live and feel that, you become content with what Allah has provided you with and are happy with what suffices your bare needs.
Antarctica :: Antarctic Treaty System
Mass spectrometers measure the mass of atoms and molecules, and have become increasingly refined since they were . Today, samples that can only be seen with microscopes can be tested and measured down to a billionth of a gram. Elements have different numbers of protons and neutrons in the nuclei of their atoms, and each nuclear variation of an element is called an . Unstable isotopes decay into smaller elements (also called “”). Scientific investigations have determined that radioactive decay rates and are primarily governed by the dynamics in a decaying atom. The dates determined by radioactive dating have been correlated to other observed processes and the data has become increasingly robust over the years.
This tutorial introduces photosynthesis
Carbon has two primary stable isotopes: and . is the famous unstable isotope used for dating recently deceased life forms, but testing carbon’s stable isotopes has yielded invaluable information. is the backbone of all of life’s structures, and life processes often have a preference for using carbon-12, which is lighter than carbon-13 and hence take less energy to manipulate. Scientists have been able to test rocks in which the “fossils” are nothing more than smears and determine that those smears resulted from life processes, as there is more carbon-12 in the smear than carbon-13 than would be the case if life was not involved. This has also helped date the earliest life forms. Life’s preference for lighter isotopes is evident for other key elements such as sulfur and nitrogen, and scientists regularly make use of that preference in their investigations.