Photosynthesis Quiz - Science Geek
But the most impressive dual-use innovation in mollusks is what cephalopods invented. Their gill pumps are quite muscular and . That . Jet propulsion is not an energy-efficient means of transportation, but the cephalopod’s ability to pass oxygen-bearing water over its gills is unmatched. Cephalopods can live in waters too hypoxic for fish to survive. In the coming Ordovician Period, cephalopods would be apex predators of marine biomes and would hold that distinction for a long time. Cephalopods are today’s ; the and it has the largest brain-to-body-size ratio of all invertebrates. It is thought that the skills needed for predation stimulated cephalopodan intelligence. Today, the is the only survivor of that lineage of Ordovician apex predators.
This tutorial introduces photosynthesis
Other traits that led to the dominance of Europeans were their violence and greed. Europe’s 16th century in the New World was essentially a . Europe’s incessant wars and technological advances devoted to , as well as its group fighting tactics and insatiable greed, made it an irresistible force that swept over the world’s peoples. Greed was by Europe’s economic ideologists. That dynamic will be explored in the next chapter.
Europe was a crucible for violence probably ever since the human conquest of Neanderthals, and evidence for warfare and mass violence increases as the timeline progressed from then. But going back to those , violence is not instinctual as much as calculated, and is a response to economic scarcity above all else. However, those early religious rituals were not only a method to form group cohesion; they were also a way to condition men to throw their lives away while trying to take the lives of others. The rituals and rites of passage for men were often extremely painful ordeals that conditioned them for the short life of a warrior, and forming highly contrasting in-group/out-group beliefs that facilitated killing other people. The portion of the human brain where emotions appear to be seated, in the , is no larger than in our great ape cousins. It is well-known that fear shuts down the neocortex, as animals prepare for fight-or-flight responses, and it is no different with humans. However, the response is much more dramatic with humans, with their huge neocortexes and frontal lobes. So the human response to fear is losing much of what makes humans seemingly sentient. Those religious rituals seem designed to bypass the neocortex and form a bridge to the limbic system where emotions rule. Religion seems to have arisen as a to warfare, but that will be explored in the next chapter, which covers the civilizing of humanity, which is the .
Tiny 'forest' advances artificial photosynthesis - Futurity
Since the most dramatic instances of speciation seem to have happened in the aftermath of mass extinctions, this essay will survey extinction first. A corollary to is that if any critical nutrient falls low enough, the nutrient deficiency will not only limit growth, but the organism will be stressed. If the nutrient level falls far enough, the organism will die. A human can generally survive between one and two months without food, ten days without water, and about three minutes without oxygen. For nearly all animals, all the food and water in the world are meaningless without oxygen. Some microbes can switch between aerobic respiration and fermentation, depending on the environment (which might be a very old talent), but complex life generally does not have that ability; nearly all aerobic complex life is oxygen dependent. The only exceptions are marine life which has adapted to . Birds can go where mammals cannot, , for instance, or being , due to their . If oxygen levels rise or fall very fast, many organisms will not be able to adapt, and will die.
5 Dimension 3: Disciplinary Core Ideas - Physical …
Scientists often measure extinction rates at the and levels of the taxonomy; families and genera are far harder to kill off than species. Some genera/families beat the odds and survived for hundreds of millions of years. They are called , and usually all of their close relatives went extinct long ago. The ubiquitous and lowly is a living fossil that first appeared nearly 400 mya. There have been recent calls to retire the "living fossil" designation, as the survivors of their lines have evolved somewhat over the years. However, it was not all that much, as they were very recognizable decedents of nearly identical-looking ancestors, and if those "living fossils" were graphically represented on the tree of life, they might instead be called the last leaves on their branch. Perhaps "sole survivor" conveys the meaning better. However scientists want to term it, the fact is that those "living fossils" have an ancient lineage, have not appreciably changed in millions of years, and the large "family" that they descended from all went extinct; their branch is bare except for them. The survivors evolved since their close relatives died out, but there is nothing close to them on their branch of the tree of life.