– Underarousal Hypothesis Low Corical Arousal or “Tuning it Out”?

The low arousal theory is a psychological theory explaining that people with attention-deficit ..

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In her peer commentary, Schroer correctly noted that, for Gray (1981), "Eysenck's PEN dimensions are only secondary consequences of the interactions between the anxiety and impulsivity systems." Schroer also precisely noted Revelle et al.'s (1980) findings that, "introverts and extraverts have different diurnal rhythms [depending on high or low impulsivity] instead of the chronic over- and under-arousal (respectively) suggested by Eysenck" (Schroer, above). However, despite these disagreements with Eysenck's theory, we should not hasten to conclude that only Gray (1981) and Revelle et al.

Activity in the ARAS stimulates the cerebral cortex, which, in turn, leads to higher cortical arousal.

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Amore coherent description of the role of arousal in extraversion isnecessary. The ARAS is a primitive part of the brain that is not involved with highercortical functions.

Underarousal Hypothesis - Psychopaths have abnormally low levels of cortical arousal

2) Inverted U Hypothesis: This theory posits that their is a medium amount of arousal and anxiety that causes one to perform higher - too little anxiety/arousal and too much anxiety/arousal will cause performance to be poorer.

Low arousal theory - Wikipedia

The need for increased amounts of a substance to achieve the ..

Instead of a stable difference in arousal between low and high impulsives, it appeared that these groups differed in the phase of their diurnal arousal rhythms.

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That is, low impulsives are more aroused in the morning and less aroused in the evening than are the high impulsives. The data reported by Revelle et al.

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Jang simply states,"Because of the different levels of the ARAS [ascending reticular activating system] activity, introverts are characterized by higher levels of activity than extraverts and so arechronically more cortically aroused than extraverts." He then supports thisstatement with research indicating that introverts choose lower levels ofnoise than extraverts.

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Introverts, therefore, perform better than extraverts underlow levels of stimulation but perform worse at high levels ofstimulation (Eysenck, 1967). In regard to this finding, Jang did not note that this relationbetween extraversion and arousal was reported based on the Eysenck Personality Inventory extraversion (EPI-E) scale, not the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire extraversion (EPQ-E) scale, and specifically, the EPI-Imp (impulsivity) subscale and not the EPI-Soc (sociability) subscale.

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Again, he simply states this difference between thetwo theorists without elaborating on the reason for this difference, whichmay not be clear to a reader unfamiliar with these theories. According to Eysenck, introverts are more highly aroused than extraverts,and therefore, because arousal enhances certain types of learning,introverts should learn simple tasks more easily than extraverts.

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Childhood Psychopathic Features and Aggression: A Test of theFearlessness Hypothesis
Patrick D. Sylvers
B.S., University of Washington, 2002
Advisors: Scott O. Lilienfeld, Ph.D. and Patricia A. Brennan,Ph.D.
A dissertation submitted to the Faculty of the
James T. Laney School of Graduate Studies of Emory University
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Doctor of Philosophy
in Clinical Psychology