## "Language of Thought Hypothesis | Internet …

### The Language of Thought Hypothesis

In sum: Moreland's brief discussion of arguments for design provides no reason at all to think that non-theists should find these arguments compelling. First, the data cannot be strong enough to decide between all kinds of supernatural hypotheses (including hypotheses on which there is almost no intelligence involved). Second, and relatedly, the data cannot be strong enough to establish the attributes which are traditionally ascribed to God (omnsicience, omnipotence, omnibenevolence, etc.). Third, there are alternative non-supernatural hypotheses--e.g. the hypothesis of the ensemble of worlds--which seem to explain the data equally well and which seem to be no worse than the hypothesis of traditional theism; consequently, it seems that there is no good reason to believe the hypothesis of traditional theism. Fourth, it is quite unclear whether there is any reason to think that those things which science takes to be brute unexplained realities are anything other than brute unexplained realities. In particular, it seems that there are bound to be brute unexplained realities on any theory, including the theories of 'theistic science'. (Moreover, it is unclear whether there is any good reason to say that our universe is 'the result of chance'.) Since the 'philosophical' case against design arguments is very strong, there is no reason to think that 'scientific' assessment of apparent evidence of design will provide any support for the claim that God (or any other supernatural agent) exists.

### Hypothesis - definition of hypothesis by The Free …

The ANOVA tests described above are called one-factor ANOVAs. There is one treatment or grouping factor with k__>__2 levels and we wish to compare the means across the different categories of this factor. The factor might represent different diets, different classifications of risk for disease (e.g., osteoporosis), different medical treatments, different age groups, or different racial/ethnic groups. There are situations where it may be of interest to compare means of a continuous outcome across two or more factors. For example, suppose a clinical trial is designed to compare five different treatments for joint pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Investigators might also hypothesize that there are differences in the outcome by sex. This is an example of a two-factor ANOVA where the factors are treatment (with 5 levels) and sex (with 2 levels). In the two-factor ANOVA, investigators can assess whether there are differences in means due to the treatment, by sex or whether there is a difference in outcomes by the combination or interaction of treatment and sex. Higher order ANOVAs are conducted in the same way as one-factor ANOVAs presented here and the computations are again organized in ANOVA tables with more rows to distinguish the different sources of variation (e.g., between treatments, between men and women). The following example illustrates the approach.

The chi-square test may be used both as a test of (comparing frequencies of one nominal variable to theoretical expectations) and as a test of independence (comparing frequencies of one nominal variable for different values of a second nominal variable). The underlying arithmetic of the test is the same; the only difference is the way you calculate the expected values. However, you use goodness-of-fit tests and tests of independence for quite different experimental designs and they test different null hypotheses, so I treat the chi-square test of goodness-of-fit and the chi-square test of independence as two distinct statistical tests.

## If yes, what are the advantages and limitations

The F statistic is computed by taking the ratio of what is called the "between treatment" variability to the "residual or error" variability. This is where the name of the procedure originates. In analysis of variance we are testing for a difference in means (H_{0}: means are all equal versus H_{1}: means are not all equal) by evaluating variability in the data. The numerator captures between treatment variability (i.e., differences among the sample means) and the denominator contains an estimate of the variability in the outcome. The test statistic is a measure that allows us to assess whether the differences among the sample means (numerator) are more than would be expected by chance if the null hypothesis is true. Recall in the two independent sample test, the test statistic was computed by taking the ratio of the difference in sample means (numerator) to the variability in the outcome (estimated by Sp).

## Variables in Your Science Fair Project - Science Buddies

It is important to distinguish between *biological* null and alternative hypotheses and *statistical* null and alternative hypotheses. "Sexual selection by females has caused male chickens to evolve bigger feet than females" is a biological alternative hypothesis; it says something about biological processes, in this case sexual selection. "Male chickens have a different average foot size than females" is a statistical alternative hypothesis; it says something about the numbers, but nothing about what caused those numbers to be different. The biological null and alternative hypotheses are the first that you should think of, as they describe something interesting about biology; they are two possible answers to the biological question you are interested in ("What affects foot size in chickens?"). The statistical null and alternative hypotheses are statements about the data that should follow from the biological hypotheses: if sexual selection favors bigger feet in male chickens (a biological hypothesis), then the average foot size in male chickens should be larger than the average in females (a statistical hypothesis). If you reject the statistical null hypothesis, you then have to decide whether that's enough evidence that you can reject your biological null hypothesis. For example, if you don't find a significant difference in foot size between male and female chickens, you could conclude "There is no significant evidence that sexual selection has caused male chickens to have bigger feet." If you do find a statistically significant difference in foot size, that might not be enough for you to conclude that sexual selection caused the bigger feet; it might be that males eat more, or that the bigger feet are a developmental byproduct of the roosters' combs, or that males run around more and the exercise makes their feet bigger. When there are multiple biological interpretations of a statistical result, you need to think of additional experiments to test the different possibilities.