Frederick jackson turner frontier thesis text
Fourth, an interpretive text-form, representing any and each interpretive iteration or reformulation of a writing -- as it was used in the life, worship, and teaching of the church -- or of individual variants so created and used. Actually, then, the interpretive text-form is a newly interpreted text that replaces the prior "original" upon which it has imposed its fresh reformulation. Examples abound in the works of Ehrman and Parker (noted earlier) and in those of many other textual critics who have explored text-critical reformulations motivated by theological, liturgical, ideological, historical, stylistic, or other factors. There is, then, a real sense in which every intentional, meaningful scribal alteration to a text creates a new text-form, a new "original," though we may not wish to carry the matter to this extreme (if only out of practical considerations).
Frontier thesis frederick jackson turner text
The burden of his article, however, runs parallel to these particular issues, namely, if the goal of New Testament textual criticism is to produce a text "as close as possible to the original," then it should employ the sources that will facilitate that goal. The papyri, Petersen says, will not do, for they contribute no new readings to the critical text of the gospels (that is, to the gospel text of Nestle-Aland / UBS), though they do frequently extend other manuscript evidence from the fourth century back to the third. Petersen is asserting, I gather, that the early papyri by themselves do not/cannot establish a text anycloser to the original than already exists in the B-text. The abundant Patristic evidence, he continues, "has been largely ignored," especially compared to the papyri; the evidence for this is in the gospel text of Nestle-Aland / UBS, which, again, "shows not a instance where the text is based solely -- or even principally -- upon Patristic evidence"; rather, Patristic evidence enters the Critical text only when supported by the uncials. Is this, Petersen asks, the proper use of Patristic evidence?
As far as I can discover, the pursuit by New Testament textual critics of a more specific, more clearly defined and more critically scrutinized, and hence a more honest meaning for the term "original" has appeared only in the past decade, and primarily in the work of a few members of the Society of Biblical Literature's New Testament Textual Criticism Group and of a creative and forward-looking scholar in the United Kingdom. Basic in their work are two relevant and crucial factors: first, their willingness to examine the assumptions underlying the notion of "original text" and to face the daunting implications of such an analysis; and, second, their insistence that the New Testament text and its myriad variant readings be scrutinized within the theological and sociocultural settings in which they were employed and manipulated. I begin, however, by defining what appears to me to have been a major stimulus for the new phase in our understanding of "original text."
BLENDING AND CONCEPTUAL INTEGRATION - Mark Turner
First, in what sense were or are competing variant readings "canonical" (for example, in the marriage and divorce sayings), or to what extent were or are variants "canonical" that textual critics now reject but that were once authoritative scripture in the fourth or fifth centuries, or even the seventeenth century (for example, additional endings of Mark, or numerous readings of the preserved in the King James Version)?
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Fourth, the Lord's prayer has six main forms in our textual tradition. Was, for instance, the Matthean phrase (6:13), "but rescue us from evil," "canonical" also in the Gospel of Luke for the numerous manuscripts that have it in their texts of Luke 11:147 Was the final phrase in Matthew's version (at 6:13), "For the kingdom and the power and the glory are yours forever," "canonical" for the many witnesses carrying it (despite the clear evidence that it represents a successor, liturgical rewriting)?
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From these notions flows a torrent of questions that can be treated here only by referring quickly to some examples, mostly discussed or alluded to in the preceding text of this article. First, however, it might be helpful to remember that gospels and epistles, though scribes copied them word by word, undoubtedly were read holistically in early Christian worship and use, and not discretely as is the tendency in critical scholarship. Early Christians, therefore, would not likely raise the "canonical" questions illustrated here, but would have treated as "canon" whatever text-form of a gospel or letter had reached them in the transmission process. For instance, if they possessed a gospel expanded by harmonization or by liturgical embellishment, they would not likely have noticed or been concerned -- unless the reader or hearer were, for example, an Origen! Consider the following inquiries: