Characterization of Organometallic and Inorganic Compounds

The Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic Compounds by William L
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Synthesis and characterization of nearly monodisperse …

The urine and faeces are the main excretory pathways of elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds in humans, with an absorbed dose half-life of approximately 1–2 months (Clarkson, 1989). After a short-term high-level mercury exposure in humans, urinary excretion accounts for 13% of the total body burden. After long-term exposure, urinary excretion increases to 58%. Exhalation through the lungs and secretion in saliva, bile, and sweat may also contribute a small portion to the excretion process (Joselow et al., 1968; Lovejoy et al., 1974). Humans inhaling mercury vapour for less than an hour expired approximately 7% of the retained dose of mercury (Hursh et al., 1976; Cherian et al., 1978). Inorganic mercury is also excreted in breast milk (Yoshida et al., 1992). The overall rate of elimination of inorganic mercury from the body is the same as the rate of elimination from the kidney, where most of the body burden is localized. In a sample of 1107 individuals from 15 countries around the world, Goldwater (1972) reported the following urinary mercury levels for subjects who had no known occupational, medicinal, or other exposure to mercury:

Synthesis and Characterization of Organic and Inorganic Compounds with Biological Applications
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Surface modification, functionalization and …

Quantitative information on long-term effects of inorganic mercury compounds on humans is essentially non-existent. However, the pattern of acute toxicity in humans and in short- and long-term toxicity studies in experimental animals is very similar, thus giving confidence to the extrapolation from experimental animals.

Guidelines for Characterization of Organometallic and Inorganic Compounds
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Inorganic tin compounds may be bioconcentrated, but data are limited. It was estimated that the bioconcentration factors of inorganic tin were 100, 1000, and 3000 for marine and freshwater plants, invertebrates, and fish, respectively (Thompson et al., 1972). Marine macroalgae can bioconcentrate the Sn4+ ion by a factor of 1900 (Seidel et al., 1980). Donard et al. (1987) reported inorganic tin concentrations of up to 4.4 mg/kg dry weight in macroalgae. Tin-resistant bacteria contained tin at 3.7–7.7 g/kg dry weight (Maguire et al., 1984).

This note deals with the synthesis and behavior of inorganic and organometallic compounds
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Elemental Mercury and Inorganic Mercury Compounds: …

Only limited data were identified on the potential of inorganic tin compounds to cause reproductive and developmental toxicity. No adverse effects were found in rats when tin (an uncharacterized form, produced by mixing aqueous tin(II) chloride with casein prior to dietary inclusion) was given in the diet for three generations or when tin(II) fluoride, sodium pentachlorostannite, or sodium pentafluorostannite were given in the diet throughout pregnancy. Similarly, repeated gavage treatment of pregnant rats, mice, and hamsters with tin(II) chloride was without adverse effect on the fetuses.

Inorganic Chemistry Laboratory - CHM3610L

Tin (CAS No. ) has the atomic symbol Sn, the atomic number 50, and an atomic mass of 118.71. Tin occurs naturally as the stable isotopes 112Sn (0.97%), 114Sn (0.65%), 115Sn (0.36%), 116Sn (14.5%), 117Sn (7.7%), 118Sn (24.2%), 119Sn (8.6%), 120Sn (32.6%), 122Sn (4.6%), and 124Sn (5.8%) (de Bièvre & Barnes, 1985). The most commercially significant inorganic tin compounds include tin(II) chloride, tin(IV) chloride, tin(IV) oxide, potassium and sodium stannates, tin(II) fluoride, tin(II) difluoroborate, and tin(II) pyrophosphate. Chemical formulae, synonyms, relative molecular masses, and CAS registry numbers of the important inorganic tin compounds covered in this CICAD are listed in Table 1. Table 2 contains other inorganic tin compounds that also feature in this CICAD.

Tin and Inorganic Tin Compounds (Cicads 65, 2005) - …

Tin(II) chloride gave no clear evidence of carcinogenic activity when given in the diet to rats and mice for 2 years. More limited bioassays carried out on tin metal, tin(II) chloride, and a small number of other tin compounds also failed to detect carcinogenic activity. In short-term screening assays for genotoxicity potential, tin(II) chloride did not induce mutations in Ames bacterial tests, mutations or gene conversions in yeast, DNA damage in rat liver cells in culture, mutations in mouse lymphoma cells , or chromosome damage (micronuclei) in the bone marrow of mice treated by intraperitoneal injection. In bacterial rec assays (in which activity is an indirect indication of DNA damage), tin(II) chloride was active in but (along with other tin salts) inactive in . In culture, tin(II) chloride induced chromosome damage and SCEs in hamster ovary cells and DNA damage in human lymphocytes, hamster ovary cells, and plasmid DNA. Tin(IV) chloride tested did not damage DNA in hamster ovary cells but induced chromosome aberrations, micronuclei, and SCEs in human lymphocytes. Tin(II) fluoride caused DNA damage in cultures of human lymphocytes, but did not induce micronuclei formation in the bone marrow following injection into the peritoneum of mice; Ames tests on this compound gave no convincing evidence of activity. Limited evidence is consistent with the suggestion that tin-induced DNA damage might result from the production of reactive oxygen species. The mechanism underlying tin-induced chromosome damage in cultured mammalian cells is unclear, although it is known that certain inorganic compounds can yield positive results in such assays as a result of pH or ionic changes in the test medium.