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syntheses in just a few hours, using inexpensive materials producing reliable and robust reactors.

Simple and Versatile Laboratory Scale CSTR for …

Process safety programmes are implemented in the pharmaceutical industry due to the complex chemistry, hazardous materials and operations in bulk chemical manufacturing (Crowl and Louvar 1990). Highly hazardous materials and processes may be employed in multi-step organic synthesis reactions to produce the desired drug substance. The thermodynamics and kinetics of these chemical reactions must be evaluated, since they may involve highly toxic and reactive materials, lachrymators and flammable or explosive compounds.

:: Heavy Water Board - A unit under Department of …

Continuous flow synthetic methodologies can also be easily combined to other enabling technologies, such as microwave irradn., supported reagents or catalysts, photochem., inductive heating, electrochem., new solvent systems, 3D printing, or microreactor technol.

Scale up of the synthesis of these architectures was achieved by programming a multiple-pump reactor system to vary reaction conditions sequentially, and thus explore a larger parameter space in a shorter time than conventionally possible.


22/04/2008 · REVIEW

* Cut back on feeding and do not use fish foods high in non-aquatic proteins, which are mostly un-digestible by fish and add to your ammonia.
For more about proper fish food ingredients.
Please see this article:

To expand on this point; ammonia has nitrogen in it (hence the "N" in NH3) and so do ALL proteins (where as carbohydrates/fats do not), so feeding fish foods high in proteins or indigestible proteins during an episode of high ammonia can be a MAJOR factor in high ammonia levels.

Electrochemical routes for industrial synthesis

Steps to temporarily improve high ammonia problems (emergency ammonia poisoning procedures)


* Change anywhere from 20%- 50% water every other day (or even every day in severe cases) until you at least reach an ammonia or nitrite level of 1 ppm or less (0 is what you want eventually).
The use of Prime or Amquel Plus immediately after each water change is strongly suggested. Also keep in mind that for example 2.0 ppm ammonia, followed by a 50% water change, you are still at 1.0 ppm (which is why the Prime/Amquel + suggestion).

Here are a few suggested water change amounts based on ammonia reading (please note these are suggestions, not facts):

Multiplte Choice Questions on Chemical Reaction Engineering

*Effect of plants on Aquarium Cycling:

As mentioned earlier, many plants such as Hornwort also remove nitrogenous waste.
I usually do not add all the plants I desire until the aquarium is fully cycled (regardless of method used), which is usually 2-3 weeks.
The plants will help carry the waste load vs. an aquarium without plants, in fact in a heavily planted aquarium, it is quite common for the plants to remove all nitrogenous compounds before bacteria can act upon these, thus neutralizing any bacteria based bio filter.

I personally like to see at least some bacteria establish it self before a full load of plants are added (but there are others with have no problem with such a method). Having plants in the beginning does help keep the dangers of ammonia (NH3) or Nitrites (NO2) from building to toxic levels, which allows for a quicker addition of fish to your aquarium.

What heavily planted aquarium keepers should be aware of is that if the plants suddenly shut down their photosynthesis and all nutrient uptake, this can result in sudden ammonia spikes. This includes light failures, medication or certain medication combinations, or any other factor that neutralizes plant bio functioning. For this reason, having a seeded bio filter, even if in another aquarium that can be moved over is important. The AAP Hydro Sponge Filters are excellent for such a use.

Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review - MDPI

The reactor reported here is composed of polyacetal plastic, which is inexpensive, compatible with most solvents/reagents (with exception of strong acids/bases), and easily fabricated. This acetal plastic performs well as an insulator, allowing high-temperature reactions to be conducted through feeding hot starting materials directly into the reactor.