Environmental endocrine disruption | Villa Rot
A subsequent statistical analysis of the same data indicated that the cumulative probability ratio for the incidence of suicide increased above the null effect level of unity for residential 50-Hz magnetic field intensities exceeding 15 nT (Smith, 1982).
Environmental endocrine disruption ..
This has been hypothesized based upon mass balance studies (Nriagu, 1979) and confirmed by the changes in environmental lead levels which have followed the significant reductions in worldwide use of alkyllead as a gasoline additive since the mid-1980s.
It is now widely hypothesized that exposure to EDCs, both synthetic and naturally occurring, are at least partially responsible. We believe this a plausible hypothesis but robustly testing it is not straightforward. For example, did the decline in male fecundity result from exposure in the womb, when the gonads were forming; during puberty, when the reproductive system was maturing; in adulthood, when conception is desired; or all of the above? Obviously, obtaining absolute proof of endocrine disruption in humans by a chemical (or a mixture of chemicals) with weak hormonal activity is likely impossible because it would be unethical to conduct a double-blind study where one group is exposed to a suspected toxicant and the other is not. So how can data obtained from animal models be used to inform human risk assessment? Can health effects that result from environmental factors be improved or corrected once diagnosed? Could effects be transmitted to subsequent generations by epigenetic or other mechanisms? Such questions are on the minds of policy-makers and the general public, and will be touched upon throughout this special issue.
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We hypothesized that interactions between specific xenobiotics and endogenous factors that control cell function and differentiation can explain both the similar and disparate toxic responses observed in birds compared to laboratory mammals. Results from a series of studies support this hypothesis and demonstrate that the response of tissues from chickens (used here as a model for avian wildlife), respond differently to dioxin (used here as a model HAH) than do tissues from mammals. Furthermore, these studies indicate that the differences are largely attributable to the interaction between dioxin growth factors and circulating hormones, including sex steroids.
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Since both growth factors and sex steroids are required for normal sexual differentiation and lower vertebrate species have more developmental plasticity than mammals, we further hypothesize that avian species will be more vulnerable to disruption of endocrine signaling during critical stages of sexual development.
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Magnetic fields in the work-place 126.96.36.199 Industrial processes 188.8.131.52 Energy technologies 184.108.40.206 Switching stations and power plants 220.127.116.11 Research facilities 18.104.22.168 Video display terminals
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Recommendations for Future Research On the basis of present knowledge of magnetic field bioeffects, several key areas of future research can be identified as being essential for achieving a comprehensive understanding of the biological consequences of exposure to these fields.