The Biosynthesis of Collagen and its disorders

Clinical Context: Ascorbic acid helps with collagen synthesis and tissue repair.

The collagen biosynthesis requires eight specific post ..

A previous open-label study demonstrated that theadministration of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan relativelyreduces the degradation and increases the synthesis of type IIcollagen, thereby improving the symptoms of osteoarthritis inindividuals with knee osteoarthritis (). However, the effect of theadministration of salmon nasal proteoglycan on cartilage metabolismhas not yet been confirmed in a blind study. Thus, to the best ofour knowledge, this is the first randomized double-blindplacebo-controlled clinical trial to demonstrate the effect of oraladministration of salmon nasal proteoglycan on cartilagemetabolism. The efficacy and safety of proteoglycan observed in thepresent study suggest that a dietary supplement containing salmonnasal proteoglycan is safe to administer and may exert achondroprotective action in individuals with knee joint discomfortby improving type II collagen metabolism in cartilage. Thus, salmonnasal proteoglycan-containing supplement is a potential candidatefor maintaining or improving joint health.

What are the second and third steps of collagen biosynthesis?

The C1,2C antibody used to measure C1,2C canrecognize the cleaved fragment (neoepitope) of type I collagen aswell as that of type II collagen in the cartilage, on the basis ofsequence homology (,). In this regard, the C1,2C antibody hasbeen used to detect the increased degradation of type I collagen inatheromatous plaques () and themodulation of type I collagen degradation in acute respiratorydistress syndrome (). However, inthe present study, subjects with hypertension (atherosclerosis) andlung disorders were excluded. Thus, in the present study, serumlevels of C1,2C should reflect alterations in type II collagenmetabolism in the cartilage.

Cahue S, Sharma L, Dunlop D, Ionescu M,Song J, Lobanok T, King L and Poole AR: The ratio of type IIcollagen breakdown to synthesis and its relationship with theprogression of knee osteoarthritis. Osteoarthr Cartil. 15:819–823.2007. : :

that is independent of its role in collagen biosynthesis.

It can be used externally to relieve itching, and has wound-healing and emollient properties.
: Chickweed is usually used to treat itchy skin problems such as eczema, psoriasis, boils, wounds and bruises

CLEAVERS (Galium aparine)
Also known as goosegrass and catchweed because of its sticky leaves, Cleavers has long been valued as a tonic for the lymphatic system,
: Cleavers is used to treat skin disorders such as psoriasis, eczema and acne.

Lecture 2 Collagen synthesis and ER processing ..

Exclusion criteria were as follows: i) Total VASsubscale of ankle, elbow, shoulder and hip joints being greaterthan the subscale of knee joint (the subscale I of JKOM); ii) ascore of ≥30 points on subscale I (pain on walking) of the JapaneseOrthopedic Association criteria (), which indicates that patients can walk≥1 km without apparent pain; iii) a diagnosis of gout/hyperuricemiaor rheumatoid arthritis; iv) surgical treatment of joint(s)performed or required; v) clinical history of bone or cartilagedisorders including fracture and distortion within one year priorto enrollment; vi) routine use of dietary supplements containingproteoglycans, hyaluronic acid, N-acetyl glucosamine, glucosamine,chondroitin sulfate, collagen peptides or any other constituents ofthe test supplement within three months prior to enrollment; vii)hypersensitivity or allergy to the test component; viii) diagnosisor current medication of disorders including malignancies,hypertension (atherosclerosis), cardiac, renal, thyroid, lung andhepatic disorders, or cerebral infarction; ix) routine use ofexternal medicine including poultices and taking prescribedmedicine (>3 days/week); x) intra-articular injections of eithercorticosteroids or hyaluronic acid within one year prior toenrollment; xi) excessive exercise, which places loads on thejoints; xii) daily drinking of >60 g alcohol/day; xiii) pregnantwomen, nursing mothers or women intending to have children in thefuture; xiv) participation in any other clinical studies within onemonth prior to enrollment; and xv) the presence of any clinicalconditions judged by the medical investigator to preclude theparticipation of subjects in the study.

) The biosynthesis of collagen and its disorders

A previous open-label (unblended) study by thecurrent authors investigating individuals with knee osteoarthritisindicated that administration of proteoglycan extracted from salmonnasal cartilage alleviates the symptoms of knee osteoarthritis,possibly by reducing the degradation of type II collagen, asevidenced by a reduction in the C2C/PIICP ratio (). Notably, salmon nasal cartilageproteoglycan has the potential to induce the proliferation ofchondrocytes and the production of proteoglycans by chondrocytes (,) and also exhibits anti-inflammatoryaction in arthritic mice (). Thus, it was proposed that theadministration of salmon nasal cartilage proteoglycan may improvethe symptoms of knee osteoarthritis, due to its chondroprotectiveand anti-inflammatory actions.

elastin and collagen biosynthesis in vascular smooth ..

Various nutritional supplements, includingglucosamine, chondroitin and collagen, are used to promote jointhealth. They are also specifically used to treat or preventcartilage disorders, such as including osteoarthritis (,).Glucosamine suppresses the degradation and stimulates the synthesisof glycosaminoglycans, such as proteoglycans (,).Glucosamine also suppresses the expression of collagen-degradingenzymes, such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and stimulatestype II collagen synthesis in chondrocytes (,).Thus, studies have suggested that glucosamine may exertchondroprotective action in cartilage disorders by maintainingproteoglycan and type II collagen levels in the articular cartilage(–).