Apr 1st, 2016 Acquisition of majority shares in joint venture

The Ramp Meter Program was implemented to alleviate congestion and emphasize motorist safety

Is cDNA a single or double stranded ? - Molecular Cloning

The conversion from bile to UDCA is done by using proprietary technology applying new enzymatic systems to achieve selective conversions in the API sysnthesis. EDQM has already granted a CEP for this process.

Der Pharmacia Sinica (Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences)

Molybdenum is an essential componant that forms the enamel on our teeth, it is alos involved in many oxidation reactions, where it forms part of several essential enzymes (list), it helps is involved in the metabolism of fta and carbohydrate food sources. It is intrinsically part of DNA metabolism and protein sysnthesis. In addition, the production of uric acid (the material that forms deposits in the joints resulting in a painful swelling also known as gout) and taurine are essentailly liinked to Molybdenum. This element is yet another fundamental mineral componant we radily obtain from sea vegetables. (Refs).

Most photosynthetic marine invertebrates should be kept with lamps of a daylight Kelvin temperature from 6400-14,000 K (higher Kelvin with deeper specimen placement, not necessarily tank depth). 20,000K daylight lamps can also be used for deeper tanks (over 22 inches) and/or supplementation with more blue lights (400nm- 490nm).


*Phototropic response; having a tendency to move in response to light. Basically this is the Chlorophyll containing plant or algae "moving" to respond to a positive light source to begin the process of photosynthesis (initial growth of plants, zooxanthellae, etc.).

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*Photosynthetic response; During this time, the molecules needed for photosynthesis gradually reach operating levels which begins when energy from light is absorbed by proteins called photosynthetic reaction centers that contain chlorophylls.

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*Chlorophyll synthesis; occurring in chloroplasts, this is the chemical reactions and pathways by the plant hormone cytokinin soon after exposure to the correct Nanometers wave length , that traps the energy of sunlight for photosynthesis and exists in several forms, the most abundant being Chlorophyll A.
This results in continued growth of a plant, algae, zooxanthellae and the ability to "feed" & propagate. Without this aspect of PAR, zooxanthellae & plants cannot properly "feed" propagate resulting is stunted freshwater plant growth, and eventually poor coral health in reef tanks.
This is also known as the Photosynthetic Action Spectrum (PAS).

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Lights as they apply to aquarium use have evolved/changed considerable since I have been in the hobby & professionally employed in aquarium set-up & design.
We often used "hardware store" warm white T12 fluorescent lights, just in larger "quantities" to make up for the poor "quality" of light, even while planted freshwater could be kept, not so with ANY photosynthetic reef life.
Early on lights such as the "Aquarilux" came out which still was heavier on the "warm" colors, it also had more blue.
Later the Trichromatics & Triton lamps came out with spectrums focusing on the daylight 6500 Kelvin temperature, these made growing planted aquariums easier with less lights to do the same job as earlier lights.
We also had actinic blue lights become available, these mixed with other lights made it possible in the beginning to keep some photosynthetic reef life, although initially these did not thrive. Later T6 & T5 advancements along with Metal Halide lights allowed us to not only keep delicate photosynthetic reef life, but for this life to thrive.
We now have T2, SHO, & LEDs of which the later have lowered considerably the input energy for the quantity of output energy of light that we need for our aquarium keeping applications.

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Further PAR Information;
As a light energy penetrates deeper through water, these need to move slightly "left" (lower) on the nanometer graph so as to allow for optimum use of PAR (in other words Photosynthetically useful radiation; please see the PUR/PAS section).