Synthesis of highly surface functionalized monodispersed poly ..
For this, purification of a homogeneous glomerular or tubular cell population can be achieved by several methods (Jakoby & Pastan, 1979), including sieving techniques (Striker et al., 1980), magnetic and mechanical techniques (Meezan & Brendel, 1973), density gradient centrifugation (Scholer & Edelman, 1979; Vinay et al., 1981), and collagenase digestion (Curthoys & Bellemann, 1979; Belleman, 1980; Ormstad et al., 1981).
Synthesis and properties of poly (aniline-co-anisidine) ..
However, most of the staining procedures are nonspecific (e.g., toluidine blue interacts with any polyanion to give a metachromatic colour shift) and depend either on a priori knowledge of distribution or, for example, the use of control sections that have been exposed to selective enzymic digestion.
However, the distribution of, for example, PGE2 synthesis reflects a more complex picture, its concentration being lower in the papilla than the rest of the inner medulla (van Dorp, 1971).
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Disperse dyes continue to offer novel approaches to dyeing, and are another ICI success story. They are used to dye polyester fibers, which do not contain the functional groups that enable chemical bonding, nor permit coloration in aqueous solutions. They are applied as fine dispersions, and can be used with other synthetic fibers, including nylon. These and other new dyes permitted the introduction of a wide range of synthetic materials as fashion fabrics.
Polydimethylsiloxane - Wikipedia
Apoptosis is derived from the Greek words apo, meaning away from, and ptosis, meaning to fall. The term falling away from is derived from the fact that, during this type of prelethal change, the cells shrink and undergo marked blebbing at the periphery. The blebs then detach and float away. Apoptosis occurs in a variety of cell types following various types of toxic injury (Wyllie, Kerr and Currie 1980). It is especially prominent in lymphocytes, where it is the predominant mechanism for turnover of lymphocyte clones. The resulting fragments result in the basophilic bodies seen within macrophages in lymph nodes. In other organs, apoptosis typically occurs in single cells which are rapidly cleared away before and following death by phagocytosis of the fragments by adjacent parenchymal cells or by macrophages. Apoptosis occurring in single cells with subsequent phagocytosis typically does not result in inflammation. Prior to death, apoptotic cells show a very dense cytosol with normal or condensed mitochondria. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is normal or only slightly dilated. The nuclear chromatin is markedly clumped along the nuclear envelope and around the nucleolus. The nuclear contour is also irregular and nuclear fragmentation occurs. The chromatin condensation is associated with DNA fragmentation which, in many instances, occurs between nucleosomes, giving a characteristic ladder appearance on electrophoresis.
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During the 1940s and early 1950s research was aimed at fast dyes for cellulose, colorants for the increasingly popular nylon and other new synthetics, and chemical theory as it related to color, constitution and dye fastness. Progress was made with new azo, basic, anthraquinone, indigoid, sulfur, and phthalocyanine dyes. Pre-war developments were followed up. For example, ICI had introduced its Solacet range of water soluble dyes for cellulose acetate as early as 1933; L. B. Holliday had launched the Supracet disperse dyes for acetate and, later, nylon.
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From 1914, the Swiss had stepped in to supply Britain and France, often with disguised German dyes or dyes made from German intermediates. Their businesses boomed, and Sandoz, for example, increased turnover eight-fold between 1914 and 1920. The Swiss replaced Germany as a source of many specialties, as well as indigo made from British intermediates. The British, after much soul searching as to why they had failed to develop a viable dye industry, responded with massive efforts that led to the revival of their own industry. The manufacture of indanthrone vat dyes and synthetic indigo were notable successes.