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(or synthesis) reaction is one in which two or more elements or …
Balancing Example Fundamental concept of why we balance equations Law of Conservation of Matter Since matter is not created nor destroyed we must balance equations to demonstrate how the reactions would occur in real life situations
Otherwise we would be incorrectly demonstrating our chemical changes There are four types: some types fall in to more than one category: synthesis, combustion, decomposition, replacement Types of Chemical Reactions Start with Synthesis Reactions:
Chemical Reaction where two substances combine to form a single product (A+B AB)
Or when two compound combine to form a single compound
Or when a 1 compound combines with 1 element to form a single product (compound) When oxygen combines with a substance and releases energy in the form of light and heat
Also Known as BURNING Combustion Reactions Oxygen can combine with MANY different substances , which makes combustion reactions very common
Coal burned to produce energy and heat
Hydrocarbons - burn oxygen to yield carbon dioxide and water with coal and energy Combustion Coal is a fossil fuel that is mainly composed of carbon:
Coal can form combustion reactions with oxygen that powers electric plants in many parts of the U.S.
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The chemical equation for this synthesis reaction looks like: ..
After 160 hours have passed since the start of the electrolysis, the process is finished. The electrolyte is filtered a few times with the help of a medicinal gauze, in order to filter out larger unwanted particles. After that, the electrolyte was further filtered through cotton wool placed in a bottleneck (of a larger two-liter bottle) that was cut off. Gradually, by repetitive filtration, a yellow colored clear solution was obtained. Since the filtration was progressing at a very slow rate, I took a smaller amount of the already filtered solution, and the rest of the solution was slowly filtered for a few more hours. In the filtered solution, along with sodium chlorate, there was also some sodium hypochlorite. Because of that, the solution was heated until the boiling point was reached, and was kept at that temperature for about 15 minutes. Thanks to this step, all the sodium hypochlorite converted to more sodium chlorate (which is also the basis of the hypochlorite method of chlorate synthesis). After heating for 15 minutes, I checked the pH of the solution, and added a bit of sodium hydroxide solution so that the pH would get close to 8. If one assumes that all the NaCl passed into NaClO3, that would mean that from the starting 350 grams of sodium chloride, one could get around 627 grams of sodium chlorate, which is only possible in theory (the yield of this type of homemade cells is mostly around 50%). Although the yield of the process was surely much less than 100%, I calculated the amount of needed potassium chloride for the reaction of the ion exchange by taking into account the theoretical yield of 100%. That way, I was sure that all of the sodium chlorate passed into potassium chlorate. However, some of the potassium chloride remained unused (which is not a problem because thanks to its high solubility, it remains in the solution and doesn't cause problems when extracting potassium chlorate).
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This method of potassium chlorate synthesis is used in the industry for the mass production of the mentioned compound. The process is based on the electrolysis of an aqueous solution of sodium chloride. The product of this reaction is sodium chlorate. After that, via the process of ion exchange between potassium chloride and sodium chlorate, one can obtain potassium chlorate, and sodium chloride. This step is also used in the thermal decomposition method. As an electrolyte, one can also use solutions of other metallic chlorides (for example, barium or potassium chloride). However, using sodium chloride has its advantages - for example, the product (sodium chlorate) is much more soluble in water than barium or potassium chlorate. Because of that, after the reaction of electrolysis is finished, the product is completely dissolved, and that makes filtration of the electrolyte easier, because by filtration one can remove all impurities without removing some of the desired product as well. As I already mentioned, later one can use the obtained sodium chlorate to make potassium chlorate (or barium chlorate, which is also important in pyrotechnics) via a simple ion exchange reaction. Although this method is used in the mass production of the mentioned compounds, it can also be used to make smaller amounts of these products.
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Large-Scale Synthesis of TiO2 Nanorods via …
Formation of a solid (or a change in state of matter) What we use to represent chemical reactions Chemical Equations They have a reactant and a product
Starting substances (reactant) and ending substances (product) Arrow is known as "react" or "yields"
NEVER equals because the reactant and product are NOT equal Coefficients Chemical Equations These are the large whole numbers written in front of a chemical formula to show you the amount of a compound or molecule
Example 3H2O - 3 water molecules Make sure that when you write out a chemical equation you ALWAYS write in the lowest ration possible for the reactants and products!!
Nanocomposites: synthesis, structure, properties and …
For example, simple hydrogen gas combined with simple oxygen gas can produce a more complex substance-----water!
The chemical equation for this synthesis reaction looks like:
reactant + reactant -------> product
To visualize a synthesis reaction look at the following cartoon:
In the cartoon, the skinny bird (reactant) and the worm (reactant) combine to make one product, a fat bird.
In a decomposition reaction a more complex substance breaks down into its more simple parts.
The major types of chemical reactions are: 1
Albiter, and Francisco Zaera, Synthesis of Heterogeneous Catalysts with Well-Shaped Platinum Particles to Control Reaction Selectivity, Proc.