Diketopiperazines: Biological Activity and Synthesis
This review summarizes the synthetic methods, reactions and biological application of important pharmacological succinimides and summarizes recent developments in their derivatives such as dichlorodiformyl, Schiff base, chalcone, Barbier type allylation etc. Over the last years. The biological activity of the cyclic imides is also briefly discussed. Formation of succinimidyl radicals and Single crystal studies on this type of compounds are beyond the scope of this review and will not be discussed. Nor referenced.
Synthesis, biological activity and structural study of …
Substituted succinimides are important compounds of many drugs and drug candidates. One of the most fundamental objectives of organic and medicinal chemistry is the design and synthesis of molecules having value as human therapeutic agents. Cyclic imides and their derivatives contain an imide ring and the general structure –CO–N(R)–CO–, so they are cross biological membranes in vivo .
Nanoparticles, in particular metallic nanoparticles have attracted considerable interest in many and diverse fields such as electronics, photonics, medicine, and agriculture. This review has summarized recent research into the synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using biological entities. However, owing to the diversity of biological entities ranging from microorganisms to plants, much of this field remains largely unknown and still remains to be discovered. The production of nanoparticles using biological entities has the potential to deliver new sources of novel materials that are stable, nontoxic, cost effective, environment-friendly, and synthesized using green chemistry approach. This green chemistry approach of using biological entities is in complete contrast with conventional chemical and physical processes that often use toxic materials that have the potential to cause environmental toxicity, cytotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Whilst biological entities have been extensively used to produce nanoparticles, the use of plants offers a straightforward, clean, non-toxic, and robust procedure that does not need any special culture preparation or isolation techniques that are normally required for bacteria and fungi based techniques. In particular, the use of plant extracts for synthesizing nanoparticles is inexpensive, easily scaled up, and environment-friendly. Plant extracts have the potential to produce nanoparticles with a specific size, shape and composition. Plant synthesized nanoparticles have the potential to be widely used in current medical procedures involving nanoparticles such as fluorescent labelling in immunoassays, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs, tumour destruction via heating (hyperthermia), and as antibacterial agents in bandages. On another front, plant synthesized nanoparticles have the potential to be used for the delivery of anti-microbiological compounds for use as pesticides for agricultural crops. Moreover, agricultural crop wastes and food industry wastes are also excellent candidates for supplying sources of plant-based bio-chemicals with the potential to synthesize metallic nanoparticles and similar products. Despite the environmental advantages of using green chemistry based biological synthesis over traditional methods as discussed in this article there are some unresolved issues such as particle size and shape consistency, reproducibility of the synthesis process, and understanding of the mechanisms involved in producing metallic nanoparticles via biological entities. In the case of plant extracts, nanoparticle formation mechanisms vary between different plant species. Therefore, there is a need for more studies to evaluate and understand the actual plant dependent mechanisms. This is a grossly unexplored field and requires much more research investment to fully utilize the green synthesis of metallic nanoparticles via biological entities.
Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization
Succinimides are easily available and have high chemical reactivity due to the presence of both carbonyl and methylene groups. Substituted succinimides are important compounds of many drugs and drug candidates. This survey was attempted to summarize the synthetic methods and reactions of succinimides.