Abstracts - Additive Manufacturing Conference

the subtractive primary colors as additive RGB lights and as additive RGB pixels

A piece of music composed with fast and slow granular synthesis.

Based on spectral models, Einklang's behaviour closely resembles that of an additive resynthesiser - and, indeed, there is additive synthesis at its core, though here the developer has employed its AI algorithms to govern and control the vast number of parameters involved, creating a sort of giant 'macro'.

the subtractive primary colors as pure CYM inks and as additive RGB halftone dots

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Because subtractive colors can be overprinted in a single dot or pixel location, to produce subtractive mixture with each other and with the white paper, they produce a much finer visual texture with less registration precision. The overprinting also subtractively creates the span of orange, green and violet colors necessary to complete the hue circle. These dots of subtractive mixture are effaced by visual fusion, and averaged together by additive color mixture. This provides an acceptable simulation in printed surfaces and photographic papers of the brightness and contrast experienced in the light images of monitor phosphors, projective transparencies, and the surfaces of the real world.

However, computer monitors use RGB primaries to create color mixtures, but all photographs and printed color images use the CYM subtractive primaries instead. So the question arises: why aren't the additive RGB primaries used in printing and photography just as they are in computer monitors?


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Because any two subtractive primaries will share reflectance in either the "red," "green" or "blue" wavelengths associated with a single additive primary color, any two subtractive primaries share reflectance that stimulates a single photoreceptor. Yellow and magenta share "red" reflectance that stimulates the L cone, yellow and cyan share "green" reflectance that stimulates the M cone, and magenta and cyan share "blue" reflectance that stimulates the S cone.

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In the top row of the figure are the The (middle row) show how these optimal subtractive primaries affect the L, M and S cone outputs. The bottom row shows the that result from the cone responses in additive color mixing.

Additive manufacturing of biomaterials - ScienceDirect

However, in any subtractive mixture, the remaining two additive primaries must compete with each other. As shown above for the mixture of yellow and cyan, the "red" light that primarily stimulates the L cone is reflected by yellow but absorbed by cyan; the "blue" light that stimulates the S cone is reflected by cyan but absorbed by yellow. So both are substantially darkened. Like a seesaw, as "blue" reflectance goes up, "red" reflectance goes down, and vice versa.

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Traditional color theory texts often express this point in negative terms, saying that each subtractive primary from "white" light the wavelengths representing a single additive primary. This principle is often expressed as four subtractive formulas, including both white (W) and black (K):

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One result is that sequentially (transmissively) combining two filters results in a darker mixture than physically mixing the filter colorants as paints; and physically (subtractively) mixing two colorants results in a duller, darker color than visually (additively) mixing the same colorants, for example on a .