B. Functionalism – Introduction

Note the self-regulating nature of this social control mechanism that evolves.

Coser, Rose Laub, , New York, St. Martin's Press, 1964. HQ728 C6

Above the social system is the cultural system, the system of patterned and ordered symbols. While it is created by humans, this is the "social stock of knowledge, symbols, and ideas" (Ritzer, p. 247). This includes language and other forms of communication, systems of morality, and all of the shared knowledge of people. Parsons refers to this as the cultural tradition, and argues that elementary communication is not possible without "some degree of conformity to the 'conventions' of the symbolic system." (, p. 11). Symbols are interpreted by individuals and individual actors in different situations so that they may react somewhat differently to them. For social interaction to occur, it is important that there be a stability in the symbol system, "a stability which must extend between individuals and over time, [and] could probably not be maintained unless it functioned in a communication process in the interaction of a plurality of actors." (p. 11).

Grabb, Edward G., , second edition, Toronto, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1990. HT609 G72

Knapp, Peter, , New York, Harper-Collins, 1994.

Wallace and Wolf trace the development of structural functionalism to Comte, Herbert Spencer, and Durkheim. The functional approach was developed from the 1930s through the 1960s in the United States. Parsons studied Weber and Durkheim, and translated some of these into English. Parsons thus became a major interpreter of these writers in America, and his interpretation may be considered to have developed the influence of these writers in a particular way. Although a liberal within the American context, Parsons used concepts and models from Weber and Durkheim to establish a sociological approach which countered the Marxian view.

Morgan, D. H. J. , London, Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1975. HQ728 M574

Established in 1953 as a foundation on the initiative of the German Bundestag, it supports the economy in consistently achieving brand value through design.

Parsons, Talcott, , New York, Free Press, 1951. HM51 P35


Last edited on November 2, 1999.

The research builds on a series of successful pavilions, which investigate integrative computational design, engineering and fabrication, and explores their spatial ramifications and construction possibilities.

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Because these materials are lightweight and have high tensile strength, a radically different approach to fabrication becomes possible, which combines low-payload yet long-range machines, such as unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), with strong, precise, yet limited reach, industrial robots.

Slope stability considerations in hilly regions for Northern Railways

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Launched in 2012, the German Design Award is one of the most wellrespected design competitions in the world and is held in high regard well beyond professional circles.

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Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie C, ISSN 0341-0161.

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The first ITECH students completed their studies.

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