Biosynthesis of steviol glycosides in the ..

Genetic And Environmental Control Of Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis In ..

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The main plant chemicals in stevia include: apigenin, austroinulin, avicularin, beta-sitosterol, caffeic acid, campesterol, caryophyllene, centaureidin, chlorogenic acid, chlorophyll, cosmosiin, cynaroside, daucosterol, diterpene glycosides, dulcosides A-B, foeniculin, formic acid, gibberellic acid, gibberellin, indole-3-acetonitrile, isoquercitrin, isosteviol, jhanol, kaempferol, kaurene, lupeol, luteolin, polystachoside, quercetin, quercitrin, rebaudioside A-F, scopoletin, sterebin A-H, steviol, steviolbioside, steviolmonoside, stevioside, stevioside a-3, stigmasterol, umbelliferone, and xanthophylls.

Genetic And Environmental Control Of Steviol Glycoside Biosynthesis In Stevia Rebaudiana

US 2013/0171328 A1 - Production Of Steviol Glycosides …

Recently, glycosides of the kaurane diterpene known as steviol (ent-13-hydroxykaur-16-en-19-oic acid) have been employed as biological templates in the preparation of porous nano-materials [4,7]. In this sense, the steviol is a constituent from Stevia rebaudiana, a plant native to certain regions of South America (Paraguay and Brazil). The major constituents in the leaves of S. rebaudiana are the potently sweet diterpenoid glycosides stevioside, rebaudiosides A and D and dulcoside A (). The steviol glycoside preparations could be obtained by hot-water extraction from the leaves of the plant, followed by further concentration and purification [4,7]. shows the main diterpene glycosides present in the S. rebaudiana aqueous extract.

of the glucose groups linked to steviol radical which determine the type of the steviol glycoside molecule

The great interest in stevia as a non-caloric, natural sweetener has fueled many studies on it - including toxicological ones. The main sweet chemical, stevioside, has been found to be nontoxic in acute toxicity studies with rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, and birds. It also has been shown not to cause cellular changes (mutagenic) or to have any effect on fertility. The natural stevia leaf also has been found to be nontoxic and has no mutagenic activity. Studies conflict as to the effect of stevia leaf on fertility. The majority of clinical studies show stevia leaf to have no effect on fertility in both males and females. In one study, however, a water extract of the leaf was shown to reduce testosterone levels and sperm count in male rats.

Structural variety and biosynthesis

UDP-dependent glycosyltransferases involved in the ..

Our recent studies on the preparation of porous nanomaterials revealed that the use of diterpene glycoside molecules from steviol as biological template favors the obtaining of metallic oxides with tubular morphology as nanorods [7] or nanofibers [4]. We are interested in understanding how these glycosides of kaurane diterpenoids control the nucleation and growth of inorganic materials, which favor the obtaining of various characteristic morphologies. It is for this reason that the employing of this ent-kaurane diterpenoids as biological templates for the preparation of porous nanomaterials is discussed on this communication.

Biosynthesis Of Stevioside And Steviol - Stevia …

Brazilian scientists recorded stevioside's ability to lower systemic blood pressure in rats in 1991. Then in 2000, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken with 106 Chinese hypertensive men and women. Sixty subjects were given capsules containing stevioside (250 mg) or placebo thrice daily and followed up at monthly intervals for one year. After three months, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the stevioside group decreased significantly and the effect persisted over the whole year. The researchers concluded, "This study shows that oral stevioside is a well tolerated and effective modality that may be considered as an alternative or supplementary therapy for patients with hypertension." Another team of scientists tested the hypoglycemic effects of the individual glycoside chemicals in stevia and attributed the effect on glucose production to the glycosides steviol, isosteviol, and glucosilsteviol. The main sweetening glycoside, stevioside, did not produce this effect. Researchers in Denmark published a study (in 2000) which demonstrated that the hypoglycemic actions of stevioside and steviol are a result of their ability to stimulate insulin secretion via a direct action on beta cells. They concluded, "Results indicate that the compounds may have a potential role as antihyperglycemic agents in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus."

Its chemical structure was not fully elucidated until 1960

Stevia's effects and uses as a heart tonic to normalize blood pressure levels, to regulate heartbeat, and for other cardiopulmonary indications first were reported in rat studies (in 1978). Following these studies, a crude extract of stevia demonstrated hypotensive activity in a 1996 clinical study with rats, showing that ". . . at dosages higher than used for sweetening purposes, [stevia extract] is a vasodilator agent in normo- and hypertensive animals." In humans, a hot water extract of the leaf has been shown to lower both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Several earlier studies on both stevia extracts, as well as its isolated glycosides, demonstrated this hypotensive action (as well as a diuretic action). In hypertensive rats the leaf extract increased renal plasma flow, urinary flow, sodium excretion and filtration rate. In addition to its studied hypotensive effects, a Brazilian research group demonstrated that water extracts of stevia leaves had a hypoglycemic effect and increased glucose tolerance in humans, reporting that it "significantly decreased plasma glucose levels during the test and after overnight fasting in all volunteers." In another human study, blood sugar was reduced by 35% 6-8 hours after oral ingestion of a hot water extract of the leaf.