Solid-Phase Synthesis of Oligonucleotide Conjugates Useful ..
In contrast to organic solid-phase synthesis and , the synthesis of oligonucleotides proceeds best on non-swellable or low-swellable solid supports. The two most often used solid-phase materials are controlled pore glass (CPG) and macroporous (MPPS).
Solid-Phase Synthesis of Circular Oligonucleotides ..
In the past, oligonucleotide synthesis was carried out manually in solution or on solid phase. The solid phase synthesis was implemented using, as containers for the solid phase, miniature glass columns similar in their shape to low-pressure chromatography columns or syringes equipped with porous filters. Currently, solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis is carried out automatically using computer-controlled instruments (oligonucleotide synthesizers) and is technically implemented in column, multi-well plate, and array formats. The column format is best suited for research and large scale applications where a high-throughput is not required. Multi-well plate format is designed specifically for high-throughput synthesis on small scale to satisfy the growing demand of industry and academia for synthetic oligonucleotides. A number of oligonucleotide synthesizers for small scale synthesis and medium to large scale synthesis are available commercially.
In solid-phase synthesis, an oligonucleotide being assembled is bound, via its 3'-terminal hydroxy group, to a solid support material and remains attached to it over the entire course of the chain assembly. The solid support is contained in columns whose dimensions depend on the scale of synthesis and may vary between 0.05 and several liters. The overwhelming majority of oligonucleotides are synthesized on small scale ranging from 10 n to 1 μmol. More recently, high-throughput oligonucleotide synthesis where the solid support is contained in the wells of multi-well plates (most often, 96 or 384 wells per plate) became a method of choice for parallel synthesis of oligonucleotides on small scale. At the end of the chain assembly, the oligonucleotide is released from the solid support and is eluted from the column or the well.
Oligonucleotides are produced using solid-phase synthesis chemistry
In the 1960s, groups led by R. Letsinger and C. Reese developed a phosphotriester approach. The defining difference from the phosphodiester approach was the protection of the phosphate moiety in the building block 1 (Scheme 4) and in the product 3 with group. This precluded the formation of oligonucleotides branched at the internucleosidic phosphate. The higher selectivity of the method allowed the use of more efficient coupling agents and catalysts, which dramatically reduced the length of the synthesis. The method, initially developed for the solution-phase synthesis, was also implemented on low-cross-linked "popcorn" polystyrene, and later on controlled pore glass (CPG, see "Solid support material" below), which initiated a massive research effort in solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides and eventually led to the automation of the oligonucleotide chain assembly.