Aqueous Microwave-Assisted Solid-Phase Synthesis ..

- Liquefaction of gently sloping unconsolidated material can be triggered by ground shaking.

Here we describe water-based MW-assisted solid-phase synthesis ..

Another indication that RCRA section 4010(c) was not intended to cover the entire universe of solid waste disposal facilities is the fact that subsequent to the enactment of section 4010(c) (as part of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments in 1984), a number of bills were introduced in Congress which would have either authorized or required EPA to issue additional regulations that would address all disposal facilities receiving industrial waste as opposed to addressing those which may receive CESQG waste as stated in section 4010(c). See, e.g., H.R. 3735, “Waste Materials Management Act of 1989,” section 324 (would have required EPA to promulgate standards for the management of industrial solid waste) (Luken Bill); S. 1113, “Waste Minimization and Control Act of 1989,” section 204 (would have required EPA to promulgate requirements for facilities that manage different types of industrial waste) (Baucus Bill). Neither of these provisions (although neither was enacted) would have been necessary if RCRA section 4010(c) required EPA to promulgate revised criteria for all types of industrial disposal facilities. (See , 34254-55 (July 1, 1996).)

Improved Solid-Phase Peptide Synthesis of Wild-Type …

EPA disagrees that RCRA section 4004(a) does not authorize EPA to require facilities to disclose all of the information required under these final rule provisions. Section 4004(a) delegates broad authority to EPA to establish criteria governing facilities' management of solid waste, requiring only that such criteria ensure that there will be no reasonable probability of adverse effects on health or the environment from the disposal of solid waste. The statute imposes no limits on the actions EPA may require facilities to perform to achieve that level of protection. Moreover, unlike other statutes, e.g., the Toxic Substances Control Act, or the Federal Insecticide, Rodenticide and Fungicide Act, RCRA contains neither provisions that grant facilities the right to withhold regulatory compliance information from the public, nor provisions that establish any reasonable expectation that such information will be kept confidential. To the contrary, section 7004 explicitly provides that “[p]ublic participation in the . . . implementation, and enforcement of any regulation under this chapter shall be provided for, encouraged, and assisted by the Administrator.” (b). And in fact, this kind of information would routinely be publically available under the permitting process for hazardous waste facilities. Accordingly, RCRA provides more than ample authority to support these requirements.

EPA also disagrees with the comments raising concern about the homeland security implications of posting information on a CCR surface impoundment's construction, as it relates to structural stability. Much of the information relevant to an impoundment's structural stability is currently available through Google Earth or through EPA's Web site. For example, EPA's Web site currently provides access to all of the information from the responses to EPA's original 104(e) information requires and the information obtained through the CCR Assessment Program. This information can be accessed at the following pages: , , and . Moreover, the Department of Homeland Security has cleared both the internet posting of all of the information currently on EPA's Web site, as well as, in general, information on the design, hydraulic parameters, volume of contained liquids and solids, and hazard rating of all major CCR surface impoundments across the U.S.


Clean Chemical Synthesis in Water - Organic chemistry

An encapsulated beneficial use is one that binds the CCR into a solid matrix that minimizes mobilization into the surrounding environment. Examples of encapsulated uses include, but are not limited to: (1) Filler or lightweight aggregate in concrete; (2) a replacement for, or raw material used in production of, cementitious components in concrete or bricks; (3) filler in plastics, rubber, and similar products; and (4) raw material in wallboard production.

Clean Chemical Synthesis in Water

In order to be subject to RCRA, the material must be a solid waste. The statute defines a solid waste as “any garbage, refuse . . . and other discarded material. . . .” (27). As EPA noted in the proposed rule, for some beneficial uses, CCR is a raw material used as an ingredient in a manufacturing process that have never been “discarded,” and thus, would not be considered solid wastes under the existing RCRA regulations. For example, synthetic gypsum is a product of the FGD process at coal-fired power plants. In this case, the utility designs and operates its air pollution control devices to produce an optimal product, including the oxidation of the FGD to produce synthetic gypsum. In this example, after its production, the utility treats FGD as a valuable input into a production process, i.e., as a product, rather than as something that is intended to be discarded. Wallboard plants are sited in close proximity to power plants for access to raw material, with a considerable investment involved. Thus, FGD gypsum used for wallboard manufacture is a product rather than a waste or discarded material. This use and similar uses of CCR that meet product specifications would not be regulated under the final rule.

Sulfoxide synthesis by oxidation - Organic chemistry

As noted above, encapsulated uses of CCR must only comply with the first three criteria. Encapsulated beneficial uses are those that bind the CCR into a solid matrix that minimizes their mobilization into the surrounding environment. Examples of encapsulated uses include, but are not limited to: (1) Filler or lightweight aggregate in concrete; (2) a replacement for, or raw material used in production of, cementitious components in concrete or bricks; (3) filler in plastics, rubber, and similar products; and (4) raw material in wallboard production.