Smile! It Could Make You Happier - Scientific American
Before addressing what we will call the “value-freeideal”, it will be helpful to distinguish four stages at whichvalues may affect science. They are: (i) the choice of a scientificresearch problem; (ii) the gathering of evidence in relation to theproblem; (iii) the acceptance of a scientific hypothesis or theory asan adequate answer to the problem on the basis of the evidence; (iv)the proliferation and application of scientific research results(Weber 1917 ).
Argument | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
There is also evidence that life itself can contribute to mass extinctions. When the eventually , organisms that could not survive or thrive around oxygen (called ) . When anoxic conditions appeared, particularly when existed, the anaerobes could abound once again, and when thrived, usually arising from ocean sediments, they . Since the ocean floor had already become anoxic, the seafloor was already a dead zone, so little harm was done there. The hydrogen sulfide became lethal when it rose in the and killed off surface life and then wafted into the air and near shore. But the greatest harm to life may have been inflicted when hydrogen sulfide eventually , which could have been the final blow to an already stressed ecosphere. That may seem a fanciful scenario, but there is evidence for it. There is fossil evidence of during the Permian extinction, as well as photosynthesizing anaerobic bacteria ( and ), which could have only thrived in sulfide-rich anoxic surface waters. Peter Ward made this key evidence for his , and he has implicated hydrogen sulfide events in most major mass extinctions. An important aspect of Ward’s Medea hypothesis work is that about 1,000 PPM of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which might be reached in this century if we keep burning fossil fuels, may artificially induce Canfield Oceans and result in . Those are not wild-eyed doomsday speculations, but logical outcomes of current trends and , proposed by leading scientists. Hundreds of already exist on Earth, which are primarily manmade. Even if those events are “only” 10% likely to happen in the next century, that we are flirting with them at all should make us shudder, for a few reasons, one of which is the awesome damage that it would inflict on the biosphere, including humanity, and another is that it is entirely preventable with the use of technologies .
CORRECTION: When newspapers make statements like, "most scientists agree that human activity is the culprit behind global warming," it's easy to imagine that scientists hold an annual caucus and vote for their favorite hypotheses. But of course, that's not quite how it works. Scientific ideas are judged not by their popularity, but on the basis of the evidence supporting or contradicting them. A hypothesis or theory comes to be accepted by many scientists (usually over the course of several years or decades!) once it has garnered many lines of supporting evidence and has stood up to the scrutiny of the scientific community. A hypothesis accepted by "most scientists," may not be "liked" or have positive repercussions, but it is one that science has judged likely to be accurate based on the evidence. To learn more about , visit our series of pages on the topic in our section on how science works.
Is 'HIV' Really the Cause of AIDS
Second, it has been argued that the VFI is not desirable atall. Feminist philosophers (e.g., Harding 1991; Okruhlik 1994; Lloyd2005) have argued that science often carries a heavy androcentricvalues, for instance in biological theories about sex, gender andrape. The charge against these values is not so much that they arecontextual rather than epistemic, but that they are unjustified. Theexplicit consideration of feminist values may act as a helpfulantidote, in stark contrast with the VFI. Moreover, if scientists didfollow the VFI rigidly, policy-makers would pay even less attention tothem, with a detrimental effect on the decisions they take (Cranor1993). Given these shortcomings, the VFI has to be rethought if it issupposed to play a useful role for guiding scientific research andleading to better policy decisions.
How to Plan and Write a Testable Hypothesis - wikiHow
Philip Kitcher (2011a: 31–40) gives an alternative argument,based on his idea of “significant truths”. According toKitcher, even staunch scientific realists will not hold that scienceaims at truth as a goal in itself. There are simply too many truthsthat are of no interest whatsoever—consider all the truths aboutthe areas of triangles whose vertices are three arbitrarily chosenobjects (2011a: 106). Science, then, doesn't aim at truthsimpliciter but rather at something more narrow: truth worthpursuing from the point of view of our cognitive, practical and socialgoals. Any truth that is worth pursuing in this sense is what he callsa “significant truth”. Clearly, it is value judgments thathelp us decide whether or not any given truth is significant.
13/09/2016 · How to Write a Hypothesis
Another major advance happened in the late 20th century: the ability to analyze DNA. was discovered in 1953. In 1973, . In 2003, . was accomplished in 2005, for orangutans in 2011, and for in 2012. The comparisons of human and great ape DNA have yielded many insights, but the science of DNA analysis is still young. What has yielded far more immediately relevant information has been studying human DNA. The have been identified. Hundreds of falsely convicted Americans have been released from prison, and nearly 20 from , due to Human DNA testing has provided startling insights into humanity's past. For instance, in Europe it appears that after the ice sheets receded 16,000 to 13,000 years ago, , and for all the bloody history of Europe over the millennia since then, there have not really been mass population replacements in Europe by invasion, migration, genocide, and the like. Europeans just endlessly fought each other and honed the talents that helped them conquer humanity. There were , but other than hunter-gatherers being displaced or absorbed by the more numerous agriculturalists, there do not appear to be many population replacements. In 2010, suggested that male farmers from the Fertile Crescent founded the paternal line for most European men as they mated with the local women. DNA testing has demonstrated that all of today’s humans are , of whom a few hundred and conquered Earth. The , as well as genomes of other extinct species, and for a brief, exuberant moment, some scientists thought that , -style. Although dinosaur DNA is unrecoverable, organic dinosaur remains been recovered, and even some proteins have been sequenced, which probably no scientist believed possible in the 1980s.