Regulation of cholesterol supply for mineralocorticoid biosynthesis.

The control by angiotensin II of cholesterol supply for aldosterone biosynthesis.

Regulation of steroid hormone biosynthesis by the cytoskeleton.

PKA and CaMK phosphorylate and activate ATF/CREB transcriptionfactors to induce and expression, the early and late rate‐limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively; PKA can also phosphorylateand stimulate the activity of StAR.

Cholesterol: Synthesis, Metabolism, Regulation

The activated CaMK, and possiblyPKA, phosphorylates ATF/CREB transcription factors to induce StAR and CYP11B2 expression, the early and late rate‐limitingsteps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively, thereby stimulating aldosterone secretion.

Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylation was significantly decreased in the older age group, compared to middle-aged subjects, both in males and females; moreover, a significant inverse correlation between hydroxylation rates and age was found in the whole sample (r = -0.56; P AB - In order to investigate the alterations of bile acid synthesis in aging, we studied the rates of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylation, the rate-limiting step, in 28 patients of different ages (34-83 years old, 14 below and 14 above the age of 65) of both sexes.

which is the early rate‐limiting step in steroidogenesis, ..

N2 - Accumulation of sterols in endoplasmic reticulum membranes stimulates the ubiquitination of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR), which catalyzes a rate-limiting step in synthesis of cholesterol. This ubiquitination marks HMGCR for proteasome-mediated degradation and constitutes one of several mechanisms for feedback control of cholesterol synthesis. Mechanisms for sterol-accelerated ubiquitination and degradation of HMGCR have been elucidated through the study of cultured mammalian cells. However, the extent to which these reactions modulate HMGCR and contribute to control of cholesterol metabolism in whole animals is unknown. Here, we examine transgenic mice expressing in the liver the membrane domain of HMGCR (HMGCR (TM1-8)), a region necessary and sufficient for sterol-accelerated degradation, and knock-in mice in which endogenous HMGCR harbors mutations that prevent sterol-induced ubiquitination. Characterization of transgenic mice revealed that HMGCR (TM1-8) is appropriately regulated in the liver of mice fed a high cholesterol diet or chow diet supplemented with the HMGCR inhibitor lovastatin. Ubiquitination-resistant HMGCR protein accumulates in the liver and other tissues disproportionately to its mRNA, indicating that sterol-accelerated degradation significantly contributes to feedback regulation of HMGCR in vivo. Results of these studies demonstrate that HMGCR is subjected to sterol-accelerated degradation in the liver through mechanisms similar to those established in cultured cells. Moreover, these studies designate sterol-accelerated degradation of HMGCR as a potential therapeutic target for prevention of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease.

Biosynthesis and Regulation of Cholesterol ..

Because of the significance of aldosterone to the physiology and pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system, it is important to understand the regulation of its biosynthesis and secretion from the adrenal cortex.

This is the rate-limiting step of cholesterol synthesis

AB - Insulin-like growth factor type I (IGF-I) is an important intraovarian peptide that stimulates granulosa cell steroidogenesis during follicular development. The cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) that converts cholesterol to pregnenolone is the rate-limiting step in progesterone biosynthesis. Since treatment of primary cultures of immature porcine granulosa cells with IGF-I will increase progesterone production as well as the synthesis of immunoprecipitable P450scc enzyme, we examined possible molecular mechanisms subserving these inductive effects of IGF-I. To this end, cultures of porcine granulosa cells were maintained in serum-free medium with or without IGF-I under various treatment paradigms. Cellular concentrations of specific P450scc mRNA were measured by Northern blot hybridization using a 32P-labeled 1-kilobase porcine cDNA clone. Northern blot autoradiogram densitometry data were normalized with a constitutively expressed 1.2-kilobase chicken glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase cDNA clone. Steroidogenesis was monitored by measuring concomitant progesterone accumulation in the culture medium. Treatment with pure recombinant human IGF-I (100 ng/ml) significantly increased P450scc mRNA concentrations after 18 h, and maximal stimulation (10- to 20-fold) occurred by 48 h for both P450scc mRNA and progesterone accumulation. The IGF-I dose-response curve studied at 48 h showed a significant increase in P450scc mRNA levels at a minimal IGF-I concentration of 1 ng/ml (although progesterone production was not increased). Treatment with equimolar concentrations of epidermal growth factor, IGF-I, or insulin significantly increased P450scc mRNA concentrations, whereas fibroblast growth factor did not. To examine possible mechanisms underlying stimulation of P450scc by IGF-I, immature granulosa cells were treated with aminoglutethimide (a P450scc enzyme inhibitor), low density lipoprotein (to increase cholesterol delivery to granulosa cells), or estradiol in the presence or absence of IGF-I. Aminoglutethimide had no effect, alone or with IGF-I, on P450scc mRNA concentrations, but suppressed progesterone production. Low density lipoprotein alone also did not stimulate P450scc mRNA levels and only slightly increased progesterone accumulation, but acted synergistically with IGF-I to augment P450scc mRNA concentrations and progesterone accumulation. Estradiol alone did not stimulate P450scc mRNA concentrations, but did significantly increase progesterone production. Estradiol cotreatment with IGF-I synergistically enhanced progesterone production, but did not alter IGF-I-stimulated P450scc mRNA concentrations. We conclude that IGF-I significantly increases concentrations of P450scc mRNA in primary cultures of porcine granulosa cells in a specific time- and dose-dependent fashion. This stimulation of P450scc mRNA accumulation is not always directly correlated with concomitant progesterone production by granulosa cells. Further studies are needed to help clarify the exact nature of the molecular actions of IGF-I on the cytodifferentiation of granulosa cells.