The Long Shadow of Temperament — Jerome Kagan, …

Definitions of the important terms you need to know about in order to understand Psychology ..

06/01/2018 · The Long Shadow of Temperament

McAdams (1995) "personality psychologists obtain a first cut of personality from a trait score. As we get to know people better, however, we move beyond traits to deeper levels of personality (e.g., motives, goals, life stories). The essential meaning here is a level of understanding . A deeper level is one where the perceiver knows more. With respect to person perception, then, traits lie on the surface (they are not deep), goals and motives reside further in, and a person's life story is deepest in the sense that it is harder to get at upon a casual meeting, requires more work to perceive in full" (McAdams & Manczak, 2011, p. 41).

In his book the musical temperament, ..

McAdams' approach shows development over time: (1994) "McAdams argued that other features of what many psychologists consider to be personality—such as motives, coping strategies, values and interests, narrative self-conceptions, and so on—may reveal more change across the human life course. Whereas those relatively stable dispositional traits may reside at the first level of personality, McAdams (1994) claimed, motives and goals (and related personal concerns) seem to compose a second, more changeable level, and people's life stories (internalized and evolving narratives of the self that become increasingly prominent as features of human personality as people move into adulthood; McAdams, 1985) sit at a third" (McAdams & Manczak, 2011, p. 41).

"dispositional traits, motives and goals (and related constructs), and life stories . . . Rather than thinking about these three features as levels in a strict hierarchy, therefore, we argue that they are best viewed as successively emerging of personality " . . . "We begin life as social , endowed with the temperament tendencies that will eventually morph into the dispositional traits that so strongly shape social performance while also comprising the first layer of personality. A second layer begins to take form in the elementary school years, when children become self-consciously motivated who set forth goals, projects, and value-driven programs for their lives, and direct their behavior accordingly. As Layers 1 (dispositional traits; the self as actor) and 2 (personal goals and their motivational accouterments; the self as agent) continue to develop over time, a third layer eventually emerges (especially important under the aegis of cultural modernity; McAdams, 1996) when the young adult confronts the identity challenges of his or her society and begins to a narrative identity. As we move through adulthood, personality continues to develop, with life stories layered over goals and motives, which are layered over dispositional traits. (McAdams & Manczak, 2011, p. 42).

First impression (psychology) - Wikipedia

Compare these two passages: "Two personal stories, one told by each author, explain how we arrived at the conviction that a movement toward positive psychology was needed and how this special issue of the American Psychologist came about. For Martin E. P. Seligman, it began at a moment a few months after being elected president of the American Psychological Association: The moment took place in my garden while I was weeding with my five–year–old daughter, Nikki. I have to confess that even though I write books about children, I'm really not all that good with children. I am goal oriented and time urgent, and when I'm weeding in the garden, I'm actually trying to get the weeding done. Nikki, however, was throwing weeds into the air, singing, and dancing around. I yelled at her. She walked away, then came back and said, "Daddy, I want to talk to you." "Yes, Nikki?" "Daddy, do you remember before my fifth birthday? From the time I was three to the time I was five, I was a whiner. I whined every day. When I turned five, I decided not to whine anymore. That was the hardest thing I've ever done. And if I can stop whining, you can stop being such a grouch." This was for me an epiphany, nothing less. I learned something about Nikki, about raising kids, about myself, and a great deal about my profession. First, I realized that raising Nikki was not about correcting whining. Nikki did that herself. Rather, I realized that raising Nikki is about taking this marvelous strength she has––I call it "seeing into the soul"––amplifying it, nurturing it, helping her to lead her life around it to buffer against her weaknesses and the storms of life. Raising children, I realized, is vastly more than fixing what is wrong with them. It is about identifying and nurturing their strongest qualities, what they own and are best at, and helping them find niches in which they can best live out these strengths" (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000, pp. 5–6).

Understanding depression and anxiety - OpenLearn - …

Bacon, S. F. (2005). Positive psychology's two cultures [Special issue]. , (2), 181–192. doi:10.1037/1089–2680.9.2.181. The rise of positive psychology has contributed to the scientific study of human strengths and virtues. This article identifies two types of character strengths: focus strengths, exemplified by creativity, and balance strengths, exemplified by wisdom. Which type we pursue influences how we organize our personal and professional lives, including choices about what we do, where we do it, and what values we promote as professional practitioners, researchers, and teachers. G. A. Kimble (1984) identified two cultures of psychology based on members' commitments to scientific or humanistic values. In a similar manner, two cultures of positive psychology, defined by the focus–balance distinction, are suggested here. Additional implications of the focus–balance distinction are discussed.