Three protein elongation factors (EF-Tu, EF-Ts, and EF-G.
The other approach is to introduce backbone protecting groups which will prevent the formation of hydrogen bonds. Such protection is made by the introduction of the Hmb group on the αnitrogen . It has been shown that the presence of a Hmb unit every 6-7 residues is sufficient to disrupt the peptide aggregation . The Hmb protected amino acid is introduced under the form of N,O-bis-Fmoc-N-(2hydroxy-4-methoxybenzyl) derivative, the O-Fmoc protection being cleaved during the following piperidine treatment. At the end of the synthesis the Hmb group is cleaved in the final TFA cleavage.
The release factors, proteins RF1, RF2, & RF3 accomplish:
Each of the 20 amino acids is covalently attached to a specific tRNA (transfer RNA, formerly known as sRNA for soluble) at the expense of ATP energy, using a Mg2+-dependent activating enzyme called amino acyl tRNA synthetases.
It has been demonstrated  that the incomplete deprotection is associated with slow or incomplete coupling. In such cases, prolonged or repeated piperidine treatment, eventually associated with a change in solvent can help to reduce the problem.
Tetracyclins Inhibit Bacterial Protein Synthesis
As mentioned above, the generation and disappearance of Fmoc based chromophors allows the monitoring of the synthesis. Furthermore, samples may be taken to determine the load of Fmoc peptide. The completion of the deprotection reaction may be checked by cleaving samples and analyzing the obtained peptide.
Toxic protein from castor beans.
But, whichever cleavage reagent is preferred, it has to be washed out very carefully after Fmoc removal, the last washing must be neutral. When synthesizing large peptides the duration of Fmoc cleavage should be gradually increased. For safe removal of the deblocking reagent the resin may have to be washed more often.
Cells Import Proteins by Receptor-mediated Endocytosis
This process is initiated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs), some of which are upregulated in the failing heart, making them ...
SparkNotes: SAT Subject Test: Biology: Protein Synthesis
Martin KC, Casadio A, Zhu H et al. (1997) Synapse‐specific, long‐term facilitation of aplysia sensory to motor synapses: a function for local protein synthesis in memory storage. Cell 91(7): 927–938.
Peptide Synthesis - Peptide Protein Research (PPR Ltd)
Kasahara J, Fukunaga K and Miyamoto E. (2001) Activation of calcium/calmodulin‐dependent protein kinase IV in long term potentiation in the rat hippocampal CA1 region. Journal of Biological Chemistry 276(26): 24044–24050.
protein synthesis - from mRNA to protein - chemguide
- the choice of the solvent. It will in part determine the swelling of the peptide-resin and influence the accessibility to the reactive sites; it will also have a direct effect on the kinetics of the coupling reaction.
- the steric hindrance. It is determined by the nature of the side chains R1 and R2 and of their protecting groups.
- the reactivity of the activated carboxylic acid.