Synthesis of Potassium Chlorate from Chlorine Bleach …
220.127.116.11 Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism Bromine substitution would be expected to confer greater lipophilicity on the brominated THMs compared with chloroform, which would affect tissue solubility and other factors that can influence pharmacokinetics.
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Mengele K, Schwarzmeier J, Schmidt P, & Moser K (1969) [Clinical features and investigations of the erythrocyte metabolism in case of intoxication with sodium chlorate.] Int J Clin Pharmacol, 2: 120-125 (in German).
3.2.5 Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism The pharmacokinetics of 36Cl derived from monochloramine have been examined in male Sprague-Dawley rats (Abdel-Rahman et al., 1983).
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On the basis of the available published data, the most recent classification of these chemicals is as follows: Disinfectants Hypochlorite salts: Group 3 (1991) Disinfectant by-products Trihalomethanes Bromodichloromethane: Group 2B (1999) Dibromochloromethane: Group 3 (1999) Bromoform: Group 3 (1999) Haloacetic acids Dichloroacetic acid: Group 3 (1995) Trichloroacetic acid: Group 3 (1995) Haloacetaldehyde Chloral and chloral hydrate: Group 3 (1995) Haloacetonitriles Bromochloroacetonitrile: Group 3 (1999) Chloroacetonitrile: Group 3 (1999) Dibromoacetonitrile: Group 3 (1999) Dichloroacetonitrile: Group 3 (1999) Trichloroacetonitrile: Group 3 (1999) Other disinfectant by-products Potassium bromate: Group 2B (1987) Sodium chlorite: Group 3 (1991) In addition, IARC has classified chlorinated drinking-water in Group 3 (1991).
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The quantity of mutagenicity was estimated for each 5-year period from 1955 to 1970 using an empirical equation relating mutagenicity and raw water pH, potassium permanganate oxidation and chlorine dose.
DISINFECTANTS AND DISINFECTANT BY-PRODUCTS
Curry SH, Lorenz A, Chu P-I, Limacher M, & Stacpoole PW (1991) Disposition and pharmacodynamics of dichloroacetate (DCA) and oxalate following oral DCA doses.
Redox reactions in Inorganic Chemistry sections 5–7
4.7.3 Toxicity in humans There have been sporadic reports of poisoning with sodium or potassium salts of chlorate (Temperman & Maes, 1966; Mengele et al., 1969; Yoshida et al., 1977; Bloxham et al., 1979; Helliwell & Nunn, 1979; Steffen & Seitz, 1981).
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4.6.5 Comparative pharmacokinetics and metabolism Some limited data on the absorption, distribution and excretion of chlorite have been developed in rats using 36Cl-labelled chlorite.