Biosynthesis of Pantothenic Acid and ..

Pantothenic acid (B-5) supplements — This is not a popular category, as deficiency is rare.

mutants blocked in the synthesis of pantothenic acid.

The Effect of Pantothenic Acid on Acne Vulgaris
One hundred patients of Chinese descent were included in the study, 45 males and 55 females. The age ranged from 10 to 30, and with about 80% between 13 and 23. The severity of the disease process varied. They were given 10 grams of pantothenic acid a day in four divided doses.
To enhance the effect, the patients were also asked to apply a cream consisting of 20% by weight of pantothenic acid to the affected area, four to six tines a day. With this treatment regimen, the response is as prompt as it is impressive.

There is a noticeable decrease in sebum secretion on the face usually 2-3 days after initiation of therapy. The face becomes less oily.

After two weeks, existing lesions start to regress while the rate of eruption of new acne lesions begins to slow down.

In cases with moderate severity, the condition is normally in complete control in about eight weeks, with most of the lesions gone and new lesions only to erupt occasionally.
In those patients with severe acne lesions, complete control may take months, sometimes up to six months or longer.

In some of these cases, in order to get a more immediate response, it may even be necessary to step up the dose to 15-20 grams a day. In any event, the improvement is normally a gradual and steady process, with perhaps minor interruptions by premenstrual flare or excessive intakes of oily food. With this form of treatment, another striking feature is the size of the facial skin pore.
The pore size becomes noticeably smaller within one to two weeks, very often much sooner. Like sebum excretion, the pores will continue to shrink until the skin becomes much finer, giving the patient a much more beautiful skin.

This decrease in skin pore size is presumably related to sebum excretion. When an acne lesion is formed, there is in the epithelial cell of the hair follicle an accumulation of lipids, leaving the epithelial cells bulky and the lumen of the gland narrowed. When there is a concomitant increase in sebum flow, the follicle has no choice but to hypertrophy to accommodate the changes, resulting in an enlarged skin pore and coarse skin. With the administration of pantothenic acid, the whole process is reversed. Lipid metabolism becomes normal and efficient. The epithelium is no longer laden with fat droplets, there is a decrease in sebum excretion, the hypertrophy process is not required. The skin pores revert to a much smaller size and the skin becomes smooth and fine.

As acne lesions tend to subside spontaneously after puberty, some patients do not need a maintenance dose. But, if a patient is in his mid-teens, when the sexual characteristics have yet to fully develop, it may be necessary for replacement therapy to be implemented. This maintenance dose, can be lowered, or increased with the clinical symptoms. A maintenance dose will not only act as a preventive measure against sporadic eruption, but the extra pantothenic acid will help to ease the relative deficiency state, and likely improve the general health of the patient.

Research Articles on Coenzyme A

(ACP), a component of the fatty acid synthesis complex

Suberic acid, nonanedioic acid (and its mono-unsaturated derivative:2-nonenedioic acid), decanoic acid (and its mono-unsaturated derivative:2-decenedioic acid) are present in honey () and are of special interest becausethey have long been recognized as part of the pheromone system of the honeybee (). They are producedin the mandibular glands of the queen and the worker honeybees, they regulatetheir activities in the hive.

It was shown that all these dicarboxylic acids are formed during the dryingprocess of and that thedetermination of these decomposition products may be of value in determining theage of old samples.

The higher weight dicarboxylic acids (n=10 to 21) are found in different plant lipids, particularly in what was named erroneously (triglycerides containing C20, 21, 22 and 23 dicarboxylic acids besides normal fatty acids) from the sumach tree (Rhus sp.). Among them, Thapsic acid (n=14) was isolated from the dried roots of the Mediterranean "deadly carrot", Thapsia garganica (Umbelliferae), but others, as Brassylic acid (n=11), were prepared chemically from different sources.
Brassylic acid can be produced chemically from erucic acid by ozonolysis but also by microorganisms () from . This diacid is produced on a small commercial scale in Japan for the manufacture of fragrances.
A review on the applications and the industrial biotechnology of these moleculeshas been released by Kroha K ().

A large survey of the dicarboxylic acids present in Mediterranean nuts revealed unusual components (). A total of 26 minor acids (from 2 in pecan to 8% in peanut) were determined : 8 species derived from butanedioic acid, likely in relation with photosynthesis, and 18 species with a chain from 5 to 22 carbon atoms.

Higher weight acids (>C20) are found in present at vegetal surfaces (outer bark, root epidermis). C16 to C26

It has been hypothesized that acne vulgaris is linked to Coenzyme-A due to its activity in fatty acid metabolism and sex hormone synthesis (Lit-Hung Leung, M.D., Pantothenic Acid in the Treatment of Acne Vulgaris, “A Medical Hypothesis” , Journal of Orthromolecular Medicine Vol. 12, No. 2, (1997)). Coenzyme-A is formed from adenosine triphosphate, cysteine and Pantothenic Acid. A deficiency in Pantothenic Acid potentially inhibits or reduces the activity of Coenzyme-A in its fatty acid metabolism and sex hormone synthesis. If the fatty acid metabolism activity is diminished, lipids, which are a combination of fatty acids, begin to accumulate in the sebaceous glands thereby increasing the sebum excretion and in turn, the production of acne vulgaris. Pantothenic Acid is essential for the proper functioning of Coenzyme-A and its related activity; if a deficiency in Pantothenic Acid exists, an increase of sebum production occurs due to the accumulation of lipids in the sebaceous glands. Pantothenic Acid in the present invention therefore reduces sebum production.

which is also required for fatty acid synthesis in ..

2. Vaxman F, Olender S, Lambert A, Nisand G, Aprahamian M, Bruch JF. Effect of Pantothenic Acid and Ascorbic Acid Supplementation on Human Skin Wound Healing Process. Eur Surg Res. 1995;27(3):158-66.

PPT – Biosynthesis of Fatty Acids PowerPoint …

1. Hillström L, Petterson L, Hellbe L, et al. Comparison of oral treatment with zinc sulfate and placebo in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:681–4.

2. Verma KC, Saini AS, Dhamija SK. Oral zinc sulphate therapy in acne vulgaris: a double-blind trial. Acta Derm Venereol 1980;60:337–40.

3. Michaelsson G, Juhlin L, Ljunghall K. A double blind study on the effect of zinc and oxytetracycline in acne vulgaris. Br J Dermatol 1977;97:561–6.

4. Leung LH. Pantothenic acid deficiency as the pathogenesis of acne vulgaris. Med Hypotheses 1995;44:490–2.

5. Kligman AM, Mills OH Jr., Leyden JJ, et al. Oral vitamin A in acne vulgaris. Preliminary report. Int J Dermatol 1981;20:278–85.

6. Snider B, Dietman DF. Pyridoxine therapy for premenstrual acne flare. Arch Dermatol 1974;110:130–1[letter].

7. Shalita AR, Smith JR, Parish LC, et al. Topical nicotinamide compared with clindamycin gel in the treatment of inflammatory acne vulgaris. Int J Dermatol 1995;34:434–7.

8. Nazzaro-Porro M. Azelaic acid. J Am Acad Dermatol 1987;17:1033–41.

9. Norris J. Azelaic acid really does work in acne—a double blind national and international study. Br J Dermatol 1987;32(Suppl):34.

Pantothenic acid plays a role in the synthesis of ..

A pantothenic acid derivative called pantethine has been reported by anumber of investigators to have a cholesterol lowering effect. Pantethine is actually two molecules of pantetheine joined by adisulfide bond (chemical bond between two molecules of sulfur). In the synthetic pathway of coenzyme A (CoA), pantethine is closer to CoA thanpantothenic acid, and is the functional component of CoA and acyl carrier proteins. Several studies found doses of 900 mg of pantethinedaily (300 mg, three times daily) to be significantly more effective than placebo in lowering total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the blood of both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. Pantethine was also found to lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels in diabetic patients on hemodialysis without adverse side effects. The low side effect profile of pantethine was especially attractive for hemodialysis patients because of the increased risk of drug toxicity in patients with renal (kidney) failure. Pantethine is not a vitamin; it is a derivative of pantothenic acid. The decision to use pantethine to treat elevated blood cholesterol or triglycerides should be made in collaboration with a qualified health care provider, who can provide appropriate follow up.