state the optimum wavelength of light for photosynthesis
Fig.9 An experiment with illustrating the production of chromo proteins insufficient for photosynthesis, and intensity for optimal illumination for this species.
what's the optimum wavelength for chlorophyll a
As we can see, there is a close relationship between the action spectrum and absorption spectrum of photosynthesis. There are many different types of photosynthetic pigments which will absorb light best at different wavelengths. However the most abundant photosynthetic pigment in plants is chlorophyll and therefore the rate of photosynthesis will be the greatest at wavelengths of light best absorbed by chlorophyll (400nm-525nm corresponding to violet-blue light). Very little light is absorbed by chlorophyll at wavelengths of light between 525nm and 625 (green-yellow light) so the rate of photosynthesis will be the least within this range. However, there are other pigments that are able to absorb green-yellow light such as carotene. Even though these are present in small amounts they allow a low rate of photosynthesis to occur at wavelengths of light that chlorophyll cannot absorb.
Our conclusion is that for best observation of fluorescence, we shall illuminate the tank with such light that its reflected portion would least hinder us in seeing the light radiated by corals. Wavelengths required for fluorescence of all chromoproteins are numerous, and there is no single wavelength that could be used for making an ideal actinic light. Based on Fig. 8, fluorescence is observed in quite wide a range of falling light wavelengths, mainly between 400 and 500nm, and different organisms have different fluorescent protein sets. For best fluorescence we need the capacity to adjust the light spectrum in the 400 to 500nm range, according to the needs of a particular aquarium.
NASA: LEDs Provide the Optimum Light Wavelengths …
One watt of optical power radiated at the 555nm wavelength corresponds to 683 lm. For any other wavelengths, it is equal to the optical power emitted at that wavelength multiplied by the luminosity function of the eye for the same wavelength. To determine total lumens emitted by a light source we need to sum up the lumens for all emitted wavelengths.
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Humans visually perceive any object as the sum of its reflected light and the object's intrinsic emission (an object is considered light emitting if its total emission at a certain wavelength range is higher than the falling light energy in that same region). Usually objects only reflect light, and their color is determined by the ratio, in which different wavelengths falling on its surface are adsorbed or reflected. For example, green leaves adsorb all visible wavelengths except for green, which is reflected - therefore we perceive it as green. When an object not only reflects but also emits its own light, the eye combines the emitted and reflected light spectrum into its perceived color. Yielding color depends on the ratio of the intensities and wavelengths of both reflected and emitted light. This color addition is best illustrated by the diagram shown in Fig. 7:
Light and Seed Germination - My Home Harvest
Using just two types of LEDs (white and blue) is not sufficient, because such a fixture will miss a significant amount of light in the 400-450nm range - much less than it is measured in the ocean, at the depth of just a few meters. The 450nm spectral range can be easily scaled up by using Royal Blue LEDs with a corresponding peak. Apart from that, the white LED spectrum quickly diminishes in the dark-red range, around 650-660nm. According to the model shown in Fig. 4, this part of the spectrum is also required for shallow-water photosynthetic organisms and adding this range can be beneficial -it will also help to emphasize the red color in the reef tank. What kind of spectrum shall we attain as a result? Answer: Something very close to the spectrum of the best light fixtures that are commercially available today. As an illustration, Fig. 23 shows the spectrum of Ecotechmarine Radion, ReefBuilders 2011 LED showdown winner .
AP essay questions - Biology Junction
Coral fluorescence is very beautiful but it is not always easy to observe it. Have a look at the luminous function (spectral sensitivity chart) of the human eye (Fig. 6). Light sensitive elements of the eye are represented by two cell types - the so-called retinal cones and rods. The first are responsible for distinguishing between colors, and the second - for grey tones. The cones work best during daytime, the rods - at night. Remember the saying "all cats are grey in the dark." This is just because we mainly see with the rods in the dark, rather than with cones. The rods do not distinguish between colors: they only sense the relative brightness of an object. The rods are most sensitive to the emerald-green part of the spectrum, with the wavelength of about 510nm (of course, when seeing by the rods, this light is only perceived as a brighter shade of gray rather than green.