November « 2017 « New Drug Approvals

widely used in scientific research as a standard selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor ...

Bradykinin - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

AB - 1. The role of an enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) and the relative importance of the constitutive and inducible NO synthase (NOS) for the development of immediate (within 60 min) and delayed (at 180 min) vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline was investigated in a model of circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in the rat. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In addition, the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent NOS activity was measured ex vivo by the conversion of [3H]-arginine to [3H]-citrulline in homogenates from several organs obtained from vehicle- and LPS-treated rats. 3. E. coli LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) caused a rapid (within 5 min) and sustained fall in MAP. At 30 and 60 min after LPS, pressor responses to noradrenaline (0.3, 1 or 3 μg kg-1, i.v.) were significantly reduced. The pressor responses were restored by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1, i.v. at 60 min), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis. In contrast, L-NAME did not potentiate the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses in control animals. 4. Dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, i.v., 60 min prior to LPS), a potent inhibitor of the induction of NOS, did not alter initial MAP or pressor responses to noradrenaline in control rats, but significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fall in MAP at 15 to 60 min after LPS. Dexamethasone did not influence the development of the LPS-induced immediate (within 60 min) hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. However, dexamethasone pretreatment prevented the hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity at 180 min. 5. At 60 min after LPS a moderate increase in the activity of a calcium-independent (inducible) NOS activity was detected in the aorta, but not in any of the other tissues studied. However, at 180 min after LPS, a significant NOS induction was observed in the lung, liver, spleen, mesentery, heart and aorta. This NOS induction was substantially prevented by pretreatment with dexamethasone. 6. These results suggest that the immediate hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline in endotoxin shock is caused by an enhanced formation of NO due to activation of the constitutive enzyme. The delayed hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity, however, is due to enhanced NO formation by the LPS-induced enzyme.

Oxidopamine is often used in conjunction with a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor ..

Creatine Supplement - Unbiased Review on Usage, …

1. The role of an enhanced formation of nitric oxide (NO) and the relative importance of the constitutive and inducible NO synthase (NOS) for the development of immediate (within 60 min) and delayed (at 180 min) vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline was investigated in a model of circulatory shock induced by endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) in the rat. 2. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized and instrumented for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate. In addition, the calcium-dependent and calcium-independent NOS activity was measured ex vivo by the conversion of [3H]-arginine to [3H]-citrulline in homogenates from several organs obtained from vehicle- and LPS-treated rats. 3. E. coli LPS (10 mg kg-1, i.v. bolus) caused a rapid (within 5 min) and sustained fall in MAP. At 30 and 60 min after LPS, pressor responses to noradrenaline (0.3, 1 or 3 μg kg-1, i.v.) were significantly reduced. The pressor responses were restored by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 1 mg kg-1, i.v. at 60 min), a potent inhibitor of NO synthesis. In contrast, L-NAME did not potentiate the noradrenaline-induced pressor responses in control animals. 4. Dexamethasone (3 mg kg-1, i.v., 60 min prior to LPS), a potent inhibitor of the induction of NOS, did not alter initial MAP or pressor responses to noradrenaline in control rats, but significantly attenuated the LPS-induced fall in MAP at 15 to 60 min after LPS. Dexamethasone did not influence the development of the LPS-induced immediate (within 60 min) hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. However, dexamethasone pretreatment prevented the hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity at 180 min. 5. At 60 min after LPS a moderate increase in the activity of a calcium-independent (inducible) NOS activity was detected in the aorta, but not in any of the other tissues studied. However, at 180 min after LPS, a significant NOS induction was observed in the lung, liver, spleen, mesentery, heart and aorta. This NOS induction was substantially prevented by pretreatment with dexamethasone. 6. These results suggest that the immediate hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity to noradrenaline in endotoxin shock is caused by an enhanced formation of NO due to activation of the constitutive enzyme. The delayed hypotension and vascular hyporeactivity, however, is due to enhanced NO formation by the LPS-induced enzyme.

Combination of a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor and a PDEV inhibitor

A practical synthesis of a peripherally selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that has a chiral 6,7--disubstituted-1,4-oxazepane as a new class of scaffold is described. The amino alcohol possessing the desired stereochemistry was obtained with excellent dr and ee, starting from a commercially available aldehyde via a Morita–Baylis–Hillman reaction, Michael addition, isolation as maleic acid salt, reduction, and diastereomeric salt formation with (+)-10-camphorsulfonic acid. The desired single stereoisomer obtained at an early stage of the synthesis was used for seven-membered ring formation in fully telescoped processes, providing the chiral 6,7--disubstituted-1,4-oxazepane efficiently. In addition to controls of dr and ee of the chiral 1,4-oxazepane, and control of ,-selectivity in SN2 reaction of the intermediate mesylate with a pyridone derivative, finding appropriate intermediates that were amenable to isolation and upgrade of purity enabled a practical chiral HPLC separation-free, column chromatograph-free synthesis of the drug candidate with excellent chemical and optical purities in a higher overall yield.

The present invention relates to a combination of a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (NRI) and a phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDEV) inhibitor