(1958) Protection against systemic poisoning by mustard gas.

Mustard gas was first used as a chemical warfare agent in 1917.    3.3.1 Colour

(1955) Mustard gas poisoning, chronic bronchitis and lung cancer.

Byrne, M. P., C. A. Broomfield, et al. (1996). "Mustard gas crosslinking of proteins through preferential alkylation of cysteines." J Protein Chem 15(2): 131-6.

Much of the mustard gas was released into the water and some of it dissolved in the floating oil.

(1988) Cancers of respiratory tract in mustard gas workers.

Riches, J., R. W. Read, et al. (2007). "Analysis of the sulphur mustard metabolites thiodiglycol and thiodiglycol sulphoxide in urine using isotope-dilution gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry." J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 845(1): 114-20.

One follow up study on soldiers who were exposed to mustard gas during the first world war suggests that mustard gas had no effect on the development of lung cancer later in life (Case & Lea, 1955), while the other provided evidence that the incidence was slightly increased among those war veterans exposed to mustard gas (Beebe, 1960).

Nitrogen mustard gas was stockpiled by several nations during the ..

More than 1000 people were killed and of these deaths more than 100 were determined to have been specifically caused by mustard-gas poisoning and many more to have been due to various indirectly associated reasons, such as disablement followed by drowning.

"Mustard gas crosslinking of proteins through ..

One additional report suggests that sulfur mustard may be responsible for the induction of cleft lip and palate in the offspring of exposed parents. Taher (1992) studied 21,138 live births at Najmeia Hospital in Tehran between 1983 and 1988, following the use of sulfur mustards in the Iraq-Iran conflict. He asserts that parental sulfur mustard exposures were associated with 30 of the 79 cases of cleft lip and palate that were recorded among newborns in this hospital during this period. No actual exposure data exist, although parents were questioned about their exposure to mustard gas, as well as any family history of clefts, rubella during pregnancy, dietary deficiency, and drug use during pregnancy. No information is presented regarding whether mustard exposure was maternal or paternal or both. It is also unclear if the population captured by this hospital represents the geographic area of heaviest mustard exposure during the Iran-Iraq conflict. Further, it is unclear if this incidence of clefts is truly elevated relative to other regions in this country or other parts of the world. Therefore, this study is hardly definitive. It appears to contain, however, the only other human data that attempt to address the reproductive toxicity of sulfur mustards.

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In humans, two studies have attempted to evaluate the potential of sulfur mustard to induce adverse reproductive outcomes. Yamakido and colleagues (1985) used electrophoresis to study blood protein variants in 456 children of 325 workers exposed occupationally to sulfur mustard and Lewisite at the Okuno-jima poison gas factory; children were divided into three exposure groups based upon parental job category within the plant. The blood protein analysis revealed 6 types of protein variants in 11 children, and 11 variant erythrocyte proteins in 25 children. Examination of 32 of the 36 families of interest showed all of the detected variants to be familial and not exposure induced. One protein variant was found in one child that did not differ electrophoretically, but did differ in its enzymatic activity. This variant was not inherited. The female child in question was mentally retarded and had a normal g-banded karyotype but was born with a cleft palate and hypomyotonia (significant decrement in normal muscle tone). The significance of these findings is unclear, as this variant might have been the result of either (1) a germ cell mutation in an intron sequence (a DNA sequence outside of the region coding for the RNA and subsequent protein) that controls expression of the gene of interest, or (2) aberrant

Mustard Gas: Imminent Danger or Eminent Threat? - …

Sass, S. and R. J. Steger (1982). "Gas chromatographic differentiaion andestimation of some sulfur and nitrogen mustards using a multidetector technique." J Chromatogr 238: 121-132.