Choose Bin Sizes for Histograms in Easy Steps + Sturge's …
Some scholars who accept the general scenario of Indo-European migrations maintain that the transition was probably much more gradual and peaceful than suggested by Gimbutas. The migrations were certainly not a sudden, concerted military operation, but the expansion of disconnected tribes and cultures, spanning many generations. To what degree the indigenous cultures were peacefully amalgamated or violently displaced remains a matter of controversy among supporters of the Kurgan hypothesis. (in 1989) accepted the Kurgan hypothesis as the de facto standard theory of Indo-European origins, but he recognized valid criticism of Gimbutas' radical scenario of military invasion:
One might at first imagine that the economy of argument involved with the Kurgan solution should oblige us to accept it outright. But critics do exist and their objections can be summarized quite simply – almost all of the arguments for invasion and cultural transformations are far better explained without reference to Kurgan expansions, and most of the evidence so far presented is either totally contradicted by other evidence or is the result of gross misinterpretation of the cultural history of Eastern, Central, and Northern Europe.
Matriarchy: the Myth of the Myth of Matriarchy
According to theoretical predictions sexual selection will purge mutational load and increase nonsexual fitness if most mutations are deleterious to both nonsexual fitness and condition-dependent traits affecting mating success. To test this hypothesis we manipulated the genetic quality of Drosophila subobscura males by inducing mutations with ionizing radiation and observed the effect of the obtained heterozygous mutations on mating behavior. We used the progeny of both groups (manipulated and non-manipulated) to test if sexual selection is efficient to reduce induced mutational load, by measuring nonsexual fitness. Within the non-manipulated and manipulated treatments we formed two groups with different opportunity for sexual selection, with presence or absence of female choice. Females mated more frequently with non-manipulated males and non-manipulated males courted females faster. Fecundity differences were obtained only in manipulated treatment. Group with the presence of female choice exhibited higher fecundity than group in which sexual selection was experimentally eliminated. There was no overall difference in egg-to-adult viability between different sexual selection regimes in any of the group. Our findings hint to an important role of sexual selection in purging deleterious mutations.
Remains in of the bronze/Iron Age timeframe, also of the Andronovo culture horizon, were also mostly of west Eurasian stock (see ).Several 4,600 years old human remains on a site in , Germany, were also found to belong to haplogroup R1a1 (see ).These elements tend to strongly support the Kurgan hypothesis.Another marker that closely corresponds to Kurgan migrations is distribution of blood group B allele, mapped by .