Essences in Metabolic Engineering of Lignan Biosynthesis

T1 - Phytochemical and Biosynthetic Studies of Lignans, with a Focus on Indonesian Medicinal Plants

Gene-to-metabolite network for biosynthesis of lignans …

There has been a growing body of reports on the molecular characterization of the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of lignans, lignan-production using lignan-rich plants or cultured plant cells, including Linum, Forsythia, and Podophyllum species [,,,,], and the physiological analyses of their biological activities in mammals. These findings have allowed us to attempt the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis in Linum, Forsythia, and Podophyllum species. This review article will provide current knowledge of lignan production via metabolic engineering and perspectives in the development of metabolic engineering-based lignan production.

The distribution is correlated with the putative biosynthetic pathways of the lignans and discussed from evolutionary aspects.

Stereochemical differences in lignan biosynthesis …

Public acceptance of dietary products derived from transgenic organisms is limited. Nevertheless, lignans produced by transgenic hosts are chemically identical to natural ones, and free from any recombinant genes or proteins. Thus, their public acceptance is expected to be more easily garnered than that of transgenic foods. Accordingly, more attention should be paid to the establishment of scaling-up and following industrialization of the lignan production systems [,,]. Large-scale lignan production by transgenic plants requires a closed cultivation system to prevent contamination of the environment by transgenic plants. Recently, various closed plant factories have been emerging, which completely shut off a gene flow into the outer environment and enables the transgenic plants-based molecular breeding of genes or compounds of interest under optimal and sterile conditions [,,]. Such advances in the metabolic engineering of lignan biosynthesis, combined with the aforementioned outcomes of a wide range of basic research, will surely pave the way for the conversion of conventional agricultural lignan production to innovative industrial lignan production.

There have been many recent advances in metabolic engineering for lignan production by plants, including: (i) the molecular characterization of novel genes encoding enzymes for biosynthesis pathways of dietary and medicinal lignans; (ii) the production of both endogenous and exogenous lignans by transient or stable transfection of lignan biosynthetic genes into cultured cells, tissues and plants; and (iii) the identification of exogenous stimuli such as light and elicitors that increase the production of lignans by cultured cells and plants. Taken together, combination of gene transfection, light, and elicitors is a promising strategy for further improvement of the lignan productivity; e.g., elicitation of CPi-Fk under blue or red LED light is expected to increase the amounts of sesamin. Moreover, bioinformatic analysis based on the aforementioned experimental data will lead to the systematic prediction of optimal lignan production strategy: hosts (cells, organ cultures, plants), light conditions, elicitor types, and transfection types, given that different optimal production of respective lignans is highly likely to occur under different conditions. For example, three Forsythia varieties, F. koreana, F. intermedia, and F. suspensa displayed differential growth and regeneration in a medium component- or selection marker antibiotics-dependent fashions [], and Linum spp. showed genus-specific sensitivities to different elicitors ().

Stereochemical Diversity in Lignan Biosynthesis of …

The transcription levels of lignan biosynthesis, along with variation of bioactivities, including cellular antioxidant activity and antiproliferative activity of flaxseed sprouts during germination, were studied.

Candida albicans Lignans Biosynthesis

In addition, the ripening seed enzyme preparation mediated the selective formation of the optically pure (>99% e.e.) (−)-enantiomer of matairesinol from racemic (±)-secoisolariciresinols in the presence of NADP.These results indicate that the stereochemical mechanism for lignan biosynthesis in