Strawberry DNA Extraction Lab – biolabreports

DNA is the blueprint of life and is found in almost all living organisms.

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N2 - We performed a combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite loci among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations in order to assess the levels of congruence between both types of markers in defining patterns of genetic structuring, introgressive hybridization and inferring population origins in the hybrid zone of the St. John River basin. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that secondary contact between glacial lineages always resulted in the occurrence of sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish ecotypes. Fish were sampled from 35 populations and polymorphism was screened at mtDNA and six microsatellite loci for a total of 688 and 763 whitefish, respectively. Four lakes harbouring a single whitefish population of normal ecotype admixed with mtDNA haplotypes of different lineages were found. This confirmed that secondary contact between whitefish evolutionary lineages did not always result in the persistence of reproductively isolated ecotypes. Microsatellites further supported the definition of distinct glacial lineages by identifying lineage-specific allelic size groups. They also further supported the hypothesis that ecotypes originated from either a single founding lineage (sympatric divergence) or following secondary contacts between lineages (allopatric divergence), depending on the lake. In general however, the pattern of population differentiation and introgressive hybridization observed at microsatellites was in sharp contrast with that depicted by mtDNA variation. Both factorial correspondence analysis and analysis of admixture proportion revealed a much more pronounced pattern of introgressive hybridization than depicted by mtDNA analyses. Variable levels of introgression indicated that environmental differences may be as important as the historical contingency of secondary contact in explaining the persistence of sympatric ecotypes and the differential pattern of introgressive hybridization among lakes. Whitefish populations from the St. John River basin hybrid zone represent a rare illustration of a continuum of both morphological and genetic differentiation within a given taxon, spanning from complete introgression to possibly complete reproductive isolation, depending on lakes. Thus, each lake may be viewed as a different temporal snapshot taken throughout the gradual process of speciation.

Isolation of mature spinal motor neurons and single-cell analysis using the comet assay of early low-level DNA damage induced in ..

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Group C2 produced the greatest yield and highest concentration.The results of the 3-way analyses of variance of yields and concentrations are given in table .Considering, only one of the three parameters (i.e., deparaffinization, digestion time, and isolation); the samples that were deparaffinized on slides produced greater DNA yields than did the samples that were deparaffinized in tubes () regardless of the digestion duration and isolation method.

21/10/2014 · The purpose of this lab was to extract DNA from a strawberry

N2 - We developed an isolation technique for motor neurons from adult rat spinal cord. Spinal cord enlargements were discretely microdissected into ventral horn tissue columns that were trypsin-digested and subjected to differential low-speed centrifugation to fractionate ventral horn cell types. A fraction enriched in α-motor neurons was isolated. Motor neuron enrichment was verified by immunofluorescence for choline acetyltransferase and prelabeling axon projections to skeletal muscle. Adult motor neurons were isolated from naïve rats and were exposed to oxidative agents or were isolated from rats with sciatic nerve lesions (avulsions). We tested the hypothesis, using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), that hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite exposure in vitro and axotomy in vivo induce DNA damage in adult motor neurons early during their degeneration. This study contributes three important developments in the study of motor neurons. It demonstrates that mature spinal motor neurons can be isolated and used for in vitro models of motor neuron degeneration. It shows that adult motor neurons can be isolated from in vivo models of motor neuron degeneration and evaluated on a single-cell basis. This study also demonstrates that the comet assay is a feasible method for measuring DNA damage in individual motor neurons. Using these methods, we conclude that motor neurons undergoing oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and axotomy accumulate DNA damage early in their degeneration.

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Analysis & Conclusion/Discussion - Jessica's RESEARCH …

We developed an isolation technique for motor neurons from adult rat spinal cord. Spinal cord enlargements were discretely microdissected into ventral horn tissue columns that were trypsin-digested and subjected to differential low-speed centrifugation to fractionate ventral horn cell types. A fraction enriched in α-motor neurons was isolated. Motor neuron enrichment was verified by immunofluorescence for choline acetyltransferase and prelabeling axon projections to skeletal muscle. Adult motor neurons were isolated from naïve rats and were exposed to oxidative agents or were isolated from rats with sciatic nerve lesions (avulsions). We tested the hypothesis, using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), that hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite exposure in vitro and axotomy in vivo induce DNA damage in adult motor neurons early during their degeneration. This study contributes three important developments in the study of motor neurons. It demonstrates that mature spinal motor neurons can be isolated and used for in vitro models of motor neuron degeneration. It shows that adult motor neurons can be isolated from in vivo models of motor neuron degeneration and evaluated on a single-cell basis. This study also demonstrates that the comet assay is a feasible method for measuring DNA damage in individual motor neurons. Using these methods, we conclude that motor neurons undergoing oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species and axotomy accumulate DNA damage early in their degeneration.

Analysis: My averages of all ..

We performed a combined analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite loci among lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) populations in order to assess the levels of congruence between both types of markers in defining patterns of genetic structuring, introgressive hybridization and inferring population origins in the hybrid zone of the St. John River basin. A second objective was to test the hypothesis that secondary contact between glacial lineages always resulted in the occurrence of sympatric dwarf and normal whitefish ecotypes. Fish were sampled from 35 populations and polymorphism was screened at mtDNA and six microsatellite loci for a total of 688 and 763 whitefish, respectively. Four lakes harbouring a single whitefish population of normal ecotype admixed with mtDNA haplotypes of different lineages were found. This confirmed that secondary contact between whitefish evolutionary lineages did not always result in the persistence of reproductively isolated ecotypes. Microsatellites further supported the definition of distinct glacial lineages by identifying lineage-specific allelic size groups. They also further supported the hypothesis that ecotypes originated from either a single founding lineage (sympatric divergence) or following secondary contacts between lineages (allopatric divergence), depending on the lake. In general however, the pattern of population differentiation and introgressive hybridization observed at microsatellites was in sharp contrast with that depicted by mtDNA variation. Both factorial correspondence analysis and analysis of admixture proportion revealed a much more pronounced pattern of introgressive hybridization than depicted by mtDNA analyses. Variable levels of introgression indicated that environmental differences may be as important as the historical contingency of secondary contact in explaining the persistence of sympatric ecotypes and the differential pattern of introgressive hybridization among lakes. Whitefish populations from the St. John River basin hybrid zone represent a rare illustration of a continuum of both morphological and genetic differentiation within a given taxon, spanning from complete introgression to possibly complete reproductive isolation, depending on lakes. Thus, each lake may be viewed as a different temporal snapshot taken throughout the gradual process of speciation.