Only emails with specific and serious offers will receive a reply.

Let us return to the questions we posed above, and put them into a hypothesis format.

LiteratureReviewHQ interviewed me about this page, and have a.

For example, "It maybe, as some suppose, that ghosts can only be seen by certain so-calledsensitives, who are possibly special mutations with, perhaps,abnormally extended ranges of vision and hearing.

Create and save customized flash cards. Sign up today and start improving your vocabulary!

Therefore, machines don't think.

: When we, in everyday language, say that we believe in something, we may mean many things — that we support a cause, that we have faith in an idea, or that we think something is accurate. The word is often associated with ideas about which we have strong convictions, regardless of the evidence for or against them. This can generate confusion when a scientist claims to "believe in" a scientific hypothesis or theory. In fact, the scientist probably means that he or she "" the idea — in other words, that he or she thinks the scientific idea is the most accurate available based on a critical evaluation of the evidence. Scientific ideas should always be accepted or rejected based on the evidence for or against them — not based on faith, dogma, or personal conviction.

Several of these have names in Latin, but I mostly ignored that andused English.

For example, let's say that question that you posed was, "How did we evolve from monkeys?" If you do some basic research, you will find that did not say that we evolved from monkeys, as many people seem to think that he said. In fact, Darwin said that human beings and apes shared a common ancestor. This statement is radically different than "humans evolved from monkeys." Finding this fact out now is important to later success in your experiment.

(Note the  in the use ofthe word "lies".)A common form is an attack on sincerity.


Needling is also if you insultyour opponent.

Theyare now dead, because although they were consistent with a few facts,they were not consistent with all the facts.)Another example: "If space creatures were kidnapping peopleand examining them, the space creatures would probably hypnoticallyerase the memories of the people they examined.

A humorous comeback will probably workbetter than an angry one.

: In everyday language, the word generally means something that we've seen with our own eyes. In science, the term is used more broadly. Scientific observations can be made directly with our own senses or may be made indirectly through the use of tools like thermometers, pH test kits, Geiger counters, etc. We can't actually beta particles, but we can observe them using a Geiger counter. To learn more about the role of observation in science, visit in our section on how science works.

Wishful thinking is closely related.

: In everyday language, the word usually refers to an educated guess — or an idea that we are quite uncertain about. Scientific hypotheses, however, are much more informed than any guess and are usually based on prior experience, scientific background knowledge, preliminary observations, and logic. In addition, hypotheses are often supported by many different lines of evidence — in which case, scientists are more confident in them than they would be in any mere "guess." To further complicate matters, science textbooks frequently misuse the term in a slightly different way. They may ask students to make a about the outcome of an experiment (e.g., table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt will). This is simply a prediction or a guess (even if a well-informed one) about the outcome of an experiment. Scientific hypotheses, on the other hand, have explanatory power — they are explanations for phenomena. The idea that table salt dissolves faster than rock salt is not very hypothesis-like because it is not very explanatory. A more scientific (i.e., more explanatory) hypothesis might be "The amount of surface area a substance has affects how quickly it can dissolve. More surface area means a faster rate of dissolution." This hypothesis has some explanatory power — it gives us an idea of a particular phenomenon occurs — and it is testable because it generates expectations about what we should observe in different situations. If the hypothesis is accurate, then we'd expect that, for example, sugar processed to a powder should dissolve more quickly than granular sugar. Students could examine rates of dissolution of many different substances in powdered, granular, and pellet form to further test the idea. The statement "Table salt will dissolve in water more quickly than rock salt" is not a hypothesis, but an expectation generated by a hypothesis. Textbooks and science labs can lead to confusions about the difference between a hypothesis and an expectation regarding the outcome of a scientific test. To learn more about scientific hypotheses, visit in our section on how science works.

"My home in Florida isone foot above sea level.

For example, "All cats die; Socrates died; thereforeSocrates was a cat."Another example: "If the earth orbits the sun, then the nearerstars will show an apparent annual shift in position relative to moredistant stars (stellar parallax).