/ Layton, Anita T.; Layton, Harold E.

T1 - Hyperfiltration and inner stripe hypertrophy may explain findings by Gamble and coworkers

KW - Urine concentrating mechanism

Furthermore, inhibitors of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and ß-lyase do not affect DBCP-induced renal tubular necrosis (Omichinski et al., 1987; Dybing et al., 1989).

U2 - 10.1152/ajprenal.00250.2009

DO - 10.1152/ajprenal.00250.2009

When absorption mainly occurs through the dermal route or when individual protective devices are used, biomarkers of exposure can provide reliable measurements of internal dose, which are useful to assess dose-response relationships. Fig. 3 shows a logistic regression model based on published data (Calleman et al., 1994) showing that 97.5% of subjects with clinical signs of peripheral neuropathy are correctly classified on the basis of acrylamide adducts to N-terminal valine (AAVAL) in haemoglobin (Hb). On the basis of the parameters of the logistic regression, the calculated benchmark dose corresponds to 0.8 nmol AAVAL/g Hb.

JO - American Journal of Physiology

Chemicals frequently used in industry or the home, e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons and ethylene glycol, also have the potential to produce renal damage.

Partial Nephrectomy (PN) and Nephron-Sparing Approaches

Another major group is composed of diseases initiated by chemicals or their metabolites that interfere with cellular biochemical and haemodynamic effects, etc.

P. Wei, P. H. Lane, J. T. Lane, ,

Mechanisms of renal injury fall generally into two categories: (a) immunologically induced disease of acute interstitial nephritis; (b) those that primarily affect the glomerulus by either anti-GBM-mediated antibodies or immune complexes.

/ Wei, P.; Lane, P. H.; Lane, J. T.

Anttila S, Luostarinen L, Hirvonen A, Elovaara E, Karjalainen A, Nurminen T, Hayes JD, Vainio H, & Ketterer B (1995) Pulmonary expression of glutathione -transferase M3 in lung cancer patients: association with GSTM1 polymorphism, smoking, and asbestos exposure. Cancer Res, 55: 3305-3309.

KW - Glomerular filtration rate

There are very few examples of nephrotoxic chemicals where there are adequate comparable data from animals and humans to form a firm basis for the assessment of potential human health risk.

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Badawi A, Hirvonen A, Bell DA, Lang N, & Kadlubar FF (1995) Role of aromatic amine acetyltransferases NAT1 and NAT2, in carcinogen-DNA adduct formation in the human urinary bladder. Cancer Res, 55: 5230-5237.

Purified from tissue culture supernatant in an animal free facility

Anttila S, Hirvonen A, Vainio H, Husgafvel-Pursiainen K, Hayes JD, & Ketterer B (1993) Immunohistochemical localization of glutathione -transferases in human lung. Cancer Res, 53: 5643-5648.

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Renal anatomical and physiological differences make direct extrapolation from experimental systems (in vivo and in vitro) to humans difficult.