Heterocyclic Compounds: Synthesis, Properties and Applications

Synthesis of the heterocyclic core of the D-series GE2270

Heterocyclic Synthesis | SpringerLink

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Polycyclic and Heterocyclic Aromatic Compounds

Heterocyclic compounds are of very much interest in our daily life. Heterocyclic compounds have one or more hetero atoms in their structure. They may be cyclic or non cyclic in nature. Heterocyclic compunds have a wide range of application. They are predominantly used as pharmaceuticals, as agrochemicals and as veterinary products. They also find applications as sanitizers, developers, antioxidants, as corrosion inhibitors, as copolymers, dye stuff. They are used as vehicles in the synthesis of other organic compunds. Some of the natural products e.g. antibiotics such as penicillin’s, cephalosporin; alkaloids such as vinblastine, morphine, reserpine etc. have heterocyclic moiety.

INTRODUCTION: Any of a major class of organic chemical compounds characterized by the fact that some or all of the atoms in their molecules are joined in rings containing at least one atom of an element other than carbon. The cyclic part of heterocyclic indicates that at least one ring structure is present in such a compound, while the prefix hetero refers to the noncarbon atoms, or heteroatoms, in the ring. In their general structure, heterocyclic compounds resemble cyclic organic compounds that incorporate only carbon atoms in the rings but the presence of the heteroatoms gives heterocyclic compounds physical and chemical properties that are often quite distinct from those of their all-carbon-ring analogs.

Essentials of Heterocyclic Chemistry-I ..

One of the resons for the widespread use heterocyclic compounds is that their structures can be subtly manipulated to achieve a required modification in function. Many heterocycles cab ve fitted into one of a few broad groups of structures that have overall similarities in their properties but siginificant variations within the group. Such variations can include differences in acidity or bascity, different polarity 7. The possible structural variations include the change of one heteroatom for another ring and different positioning of the same heteroatoms within the ring.

Heterocyclic compound - Wikipedia

Heterocyclic compunds are also finding an increasing use as intermediate in organic synthesis[10-12]. Very often this is because a relatively stable ring system can be carried through a number of synthetic steps and then cleaved at the required stage in a synthesis to reveal other functional groups. For e.g. 4-chloro-5(4H)-oxazolones are useful intermediates 13 in organic synthesis. In particular hydrolytic cleavage affords α-chloro-αacylaminoketones. More ever they are the logical intermediate to prepare 4-(phospho-ranylidene)-5(4H)-oxazolones, that are very important and useful ligands.

Ester synthesis by oxidative esterification

Heterocyclic compunds are widely distributed in nature. Many are of fundamental importance to living systems: it is striking how often a heterocyclic compund is found as a key component in biological processes. For example the nucleic acid bases, which are derivatives of the purine, namely adenine, guanine and pyrimidine, namely thymine, cystosine as being crucial to the mechanism of replication. Some purine and pyrimidines can act as antibiotics, by interference with DNA synthesis. Puromycin is an example of such an antibiotic.

Larock indole synthesis - Wikipedia

Chlorophyll and heme, which are derivatives pf porphyrin ring system are the components required for the photosynthesis and for oxygen transport in higher plants and in animal. Essential diet ingredients such as thiamin (vitamin B1), riboflavin (vitamin B2), pyridoxol (vitamin B6), nicotinamide (vitamin B3) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C) are heterocyclic compounds.