Alkyl Halide Synthesis Laboratory Synthesis Of Alk ..
Key product strengths include fluorinated compounds, boronic acids, heterocycles, chiral compounds, and acyl and sulphonyl halides. Lancaster Synthesis has exclusive distribution arrangements with many of its suppliers, making it the only laboratory scale commercial source of many compounds.
Glycoside Synthesis from Anomeric Halides
Methyl halides are used as agricultural fumigants and are precursor molecules that can be catalytically converted to chemicals and fuels. Plants and microorganisms naturally produce methyl halides, but these organisms produce very low yields or are not amenable to industrial production. A single methyl halide transferase (MHT) enzyme transfers the methyl group from the ubiquitous metabolite S-adenoyl methionine (SAM) to a halide ion. Using a synthetic metagenomic approach, we chemically synthesized all 89 putative MHT genes from plants, fungi, bacteria, and unidentified organisms present in the NCBI sequence database. The set was screened in to identify the rates of CH3Cl, CH3Br, and CH3I production, with 56% of the library active on chloride, 85% on bromide, and 69% on iodide. Expression of the highest activity MHT and subsequent engineering in results in productivity of 190 mg/L-h from glucose and sucrose. Using a symbiotic co-culture of the engineered yeast and the cellulolytic bacterium , we are able to achieve methyl halide production from unprocessed switchgrass (), corn stover, sugar cane bagasse, and poplar ( sp.). These results demonstrate the potential of producing methyl halides from non-food agricultural resources.
Synthesis of Alkyl Halides
Halogenation of alkanes occurs with halogen in the presence of heat or light. Alkenes react with hydrogen halide to produce alkyl halides. Halogenation of alkenes produce dihaloalkanes. Alkynes react with two equivalent of hydrogen halide to produce dihaloalkanes. Dihalogenation of alkynes result in tetrahaloalkanes. Alcohols undergo reaction with hydrogen halide, phosphorous trihalide, phosphorus pentahalide, or thionyl chloride to yield alkyl halides.