GLYCOGEN & GLUCOSE METABOLIC DISORDERS

Metabolic Actions of Insulin and Glucagon: Fatty acid uptake and release in fat
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Glycolysis: Process of Glucose Utilization and Homeostasis

Although it had been originally been suggested in 1992 that the to a carbohydrate supplement would enhance the rate of muscle glycogen re synthesis after endurance exercise, provided evidence that the difference was not protein per se, but the fact that the two drinks were not Calorically equal.

that short term high intensity exercise increases the rate of glycogen repletion compared to less intense levels of exertion.
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Glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscle - Tuscany Diet

“It’s well known that carbohydrate feeding blunts the increase in free fatty acids,” he says, which of course ends up blunting the increase in serotonin, “so carbohydrates cannot only delay glycogen depletion, but they also delay central fatigue.” In addition, brain function in general is highly dependent upon blood glucose, as anyone who tries to calculate mile splits at mile 23 probably knows.

Both glucose and insulin regulate glycogen synthase activity, and higher levels of them improve muscle glycogen synthesis.
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I'm sure you're awareof the claims being made by the various supplement manufacturers of how itcan increase performance but I wanted to get your take on it." --TDAnswer: After a ride it is important to replace muscle glycogen.

59. Bijur GN, Jope RS. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta is highly activated in nuclei and mitochondria.  2003;14:2415-9
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The slow phase of glycogen synthesis appears to be under ..

Although the rate of CHO incorporation into muscle glycogen storage begins to fall at 2 hours, there is a in the range of 1.5 grams of CHO per kg body weight during the first 2 hours post exercise.

on enzymes of glycogen, and glucose …

It has been suggested that the initial elevated replacement rate is insulin INdependent, while the slowing at 4 hours is a shift back towards the normal insulin dependent muscle cell uptake rate.After this initial 4 hours surge, muscle glycogen stores are replenished at a rate of approximately 5% per hour.

Glycogenesis: Glycogen Synthesis Process

As the body increases its glycogen stores, it also increases the amount of stored water, leading to slight weight gain but also making more water available for sweat during the race.

“Synthesis of Glycogen from Glucose is called GLYCOGENESIS

The author suggested that a protein-CHOmix might be help with glycogen re synthesis ONLY in those rare times that adequate carbohydrates are not available in the immediate post exercise recovery period.

Glycogen synthesis and degradation | Study in Ukraine

Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is associated with various key biological processes, including glucose regulation, apoptosis, protein synthesis, cell signaling, cellular transport, gene transcription, proliferation, and intracellular communication. Accordingly, GSK-3 has been implicated in a wide variety of diseases and specifically targeted for both therapeutic and imaging applications by a large number of academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies. Here, we review the structure, function, expression levels, and ligand-binding properties of GSK-3 and its connection to various diseases. A selected list of highly potent GSK-3 inhibitors, with IC50 50

Glycogen Metabolism - SlideShare

Martin also points out that nonworking muscles cannot transfer their glycogen reserves to working muscles; once glucose is inside a muscle cell, that’s where it stays until it’s metabolized.