13/02/1992 · Original Article

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Mutations in the Lysosomal Enzyme–Targeting Pathway …

The idea that mutations could occur that would cause adverse effects has been verified by substantial work that has been done in an effort to understand human genetic diseases. Many human diseases have been traced to errors that have occurred in genetic code. Symptoms of some genetic diseases are even age-related and tend to increase with age.

If a so-called "gay gene," exists, what is the evolutionary logic behind it? A new study offers evidence supporting the so-called "balancing selection hypothesis."

25/02/2010 · Results

Another problem is that a number of diverse organisms (e.g. salmon, octopus, marsupial mouse, and bamboo) display instances of death closely following an act of sexual reproduction. Death in these species appears to be by the reproductive function or controlled by whatever triggers reproduction as opposed to calendar age. Aging in most mammals, as a gradual, diffuse, and multi-tissue degradation loosely tied to sexual maturity, could plausibly result from random mutations variably degrading a family of beneficial maintenance characteristics. However, this scenario does not appear to work for bamboo, salmon, marsupial mouse, and other plants and animals that exhibit what appears to be programmed death tied directly to reproduction and clearly not associated with a generalized maintenance function. How could suicidal behavior result from the random mutation degradation of a beneficial characteristic? What beneficial characteristic was degraded to result in biological suicide?

Many of the activities involved in maintenance, such as cell division and replacement, would appear to largely duplicate those involved in the original growth and development. Therefore, it is reasonable to believe that a relatively small number of genes are exclusively associated with the maintenance function, such as genes that control initiation of cell division only in a maintenance context. It is only these genes that are affected by the adverse mutations.