The Debate over the Gaia Hypothesis." Online.

 The hypothesis can be defined through metaphors, religious beliefs, and scientific rationale.

famous for his Gaia hypothesis that Earth is a self ..

My parents were conservative Lutherans who refused to accept evolution primarily due to the fact that they possessed no scientific education whatsoever, and their church told them not to (you do not need to give up your belief in God to accept the evidence of Darwin's Theory). While reading this unexpected gem, I kept thinking "I wish my parents were still alive so they could read this lucid explanation of evolution (in chapter one)". Although not a book targeted toward young adults, I would have no problem gifting this book to pre-teenagers about to enter secondary school. What an unexpected surprise.

Essay about The Gaia Hypothesis -- Papers

I recently remarked that: “Frank’s in vitro AgCl argument is so simplistic that it has not progressed to the level of a basic chemistry set experiment, which at least might have demonstrated the ammonia phenomenon”. The URL (and the photo) provided above illustrates Frank’s hypothesis. Clicking on the NH3 symbol on that page will show you my counter argument to Frank’s hypothesis (the photo is reproduced below), which he conveniently neglected to take account of and still stubbornly refuses to acknowledge, resorting to insults instead of scientific defence of his failed hypothesis.

Please note the maximum figure of 1100ug/Day highest in the most severely burnt patients. This is still five times less than your maximum figure. I guess that I need not point out that, as with our colloidal silver, the silver in question entered the body as silver ions, as did presumably all of the SSD studies provided and these are therefore quite appropriate as comparatives. However, bearing in mind that the SSD ions did not have the stomachic hydrochloric acid to deal with, your figure of 6mg/L still remains incredible, and even though it would serve to support my ammonia hypothesis all the more strongly, I would still suggest that we could improve the science of colloidal silver appreciably by replicating your experiment or even better, conducting tests capable of determining accurate comparative concentrations in the blood, urine and feces for ionic, mixed and pure particulate silver. Furthermore, by delineating the circumstances leading to the detection of such relatively high urinary values, this phenomenon proves beyond a shadow of doubt, that ionic silver is effectively assimilated into and circulated within the body.


Global Warming; Gaia Hypothesis; ..


Molecular fossils () of biological lipids (fats from cell membranes) characteristic of eukaryotic organisms that were probably still singled-celled were thought to have been found preserved in 2.7-billion-year-old shales from the Pilbara Craton, Australia. However, they were later found to have been the contaminants of oil from a more recent era (). Unlike the prokaryotic bacteria (and archaea), the more complex eukaryotes have a nucleus and other organelles within the cell and so are also bigger. If some eukaryotes had developed by Year 1.9 billion, these would have been ancestors of modern, integrated multi-cellular lifeforms from seaweeds and worms to trees and humans (as discussed below). While not as common as (the biomarkers of prokaryotes), the trace eukaryotic purportedly found in the Archean shales would have pushed back their geological presence by 500 million to 1 billion years before their known fossil record (; and ). In any case, new evidence from South Africa for the start-up of an unstable and of oxidative chromium weathering) indicate that oxygen-producing microbes (most likely cyanobacteria) had produced some little free oxygen by around 2.7 to 2.8 billion ago in the late Archean, but that low "levels of biologically available nitrogen imited the growth of oxygen-producing plankton, delaying the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere" (; and ). Until 2.5 billion years ago, dry land on the Earth's surface was was very scarce and may have covered as little as two to three percent of its surface. Today, some 28 percent of Earth's surface is above sea level. However, calculations by a team of geoscientist (including ) suggest that Earth was a "" up through year 2.1 billion because Earth's mantle layer may have been up to 200 °C hotter than it is today, when the early Earth still had a larger quantity of radioactive elements decaying and producing heat. This hotter mantle would have made the crust beneath the oceans hotter and thicker than it is today, buoying it up relative to the continents, and the associated shallower ocean basins would have held less water, leading to the flooding of much of what is now land. Such a hot mantle would also have the continental crust to spread more laterally, making the planet's continents lower-lying and flatter than today and more vulnerable to being flooded by shallow seas ().
Years 2.1 to 2.6 Billion Just before this period, some anaerobes mutated to become "aerobic" purple bacteria () that metabolize molecular oxygen and substances produced by life such as carbohydrates into carbon dioxide and water. Many microbes eventually merged into symbiosis with other microbial types (e.g., acid and heat lovers, swimmers, and producers and breathers of oxygen as well as hydrogen and methane). This was accomplished through ingestion without digestion.

First, some microbes developed a nucleus using cellular membranes to containtheir DNA ("eukaryotes"), perhaps through . Then, some heat and acidresistant archaebacterium (e.g., Thermoplasma) may have merged withfree-swimming spirochete-type bacteria, which became flagella or cilia, on anow, free-swimming protist that is easily poisoned by oxygen. Around two billion years ago, however, some of these protists merged with oxygen-using (and apparently also hydrogen-producing) bacteria, which became multi-functional inside them (; ; ; ; and ) that became strictly oxygen-using , strictly hydrogen-producing , and organelles remaining capable of both processes to produce energy using . Subsequently, some aerobic (or oxygen-breathing) protists merged with photosynthetic bacteria, which became chloroplasts and other plastids, to create free-swimming green algae and the precursors of today's plant cells. As a result, these new microbes -- called in the (SET) of -- becamequick adapters to new environments and expanded greatly in diversity as well asnumbers.


Some of the oxygen produced by photosynthetic bacteria was absorbed (oxidized) by iron dissolved in Earth's oceans. This produced an ancient rain of minute, rusty particles to accumulate on ancient ocean floors that is found today as bands of haematite in rock. As molecular oxygen became abundant, a fraction underwent continuous conversion into a tri-atomic form known as ozone (O). The ozone rose to form a layer in Earth's atmosphere which helps to protect the planet's carbon-based lifeforms from damage by the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. As photosynthetic bacteria prospered and spread, the concentration of oxygen in air and water became abundant as early as Year 2.24 billion (see update from ). However, anaerobic microbes in many habitats died out in massive numbers, including the climate-warming methanogens, during the "" (or "") between Years 2.2 and 2.3 billion.

Earth's primeval atmosphere was also rich in carbon dioxide as well as methane, perhaps 100 times as rich as today. As the Sol was as much as 20 percent less luminous then, this primeval abundance of carbon dioxide and methane initially kept the young cooling Earth warm through a greenhouse effect. For 250 million years between Year 2.16 and 2.26 billion, however, volcanic activity appears to have subsided in a "global magmatic lull" so that comparatively little carbon dioxide was released into the atmosphere through volcanoes (; and ). Along with weather and geologic processes on Earth removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the expanding success of photosynthetic microbes eventually created so much atmospheric oxygen and depleted methane and carbon dioxide levels to such an extent that the greenhouse effect may have become negligible around Year 2.1 billion, chilling the young Earth (); and ).

As a result, the Earth's surface may have froze mostly or thinly solid through equatorial regions ("" versus "" Earth hypotheses). This chill may have lasted until the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide gradually rose to 350 times today's concentration after millions of years of volcanic activity (with a similar increase in methane) and a sudden meltdown occurred -- resulting in an "Acidic Hothouse" (. Microbial life, however, should have survived in or around cracks in warm ocean seafloors, deep volcanic vents, surface volcanic springs, and other warm niches. A Snowball to Acidic Hothouse swing would have greatly added to already high evolutionary pressures from anaerobic extinctions through genetic isolation of selective survival adaptations and may have led singled-celled eukaryotic organisms to cooperate together physically and form the first lifeforms.


After each great thaw, there may have been a "huge transient bloom of cyanobacteria that quickly died and rotted, in the process consuming all the oxygen they had once produced (). Although atmospheric oxygen soon recovered again as photosynthesis and weathering reached a new balance, at about 10 per cent of present-day levels, the oxidative weathering of sulphides on land filled the oceans with sulphate which created abundant food for a group of bacteria that filled the oceans with sewer gas (hydrogen sulphide) toxic to oxygen-loving lifeforms (delaying the development of eukaryotic plants and animals) and turned them "into stinking, stagnant waters almost entirely devoid of oxygen." Mild oxygen levels in shallow seas but oxygen-poor deep oceans lasted for some 1.3 billion years during a time that has been dubbed the "Boring Billion" but eventually led to the development of mitochondria that now power multicellular planet and animal life (; ; ; and ). Eventually, however, terrestrial red and green algae and the first lichens developed on land and the final big rise in oxygen may have been caused by the "greening of the continents from around 800 million years ago," when these simple early lifeforms on land steadily spread and broke down rocks that sustained a higher rate of erosion and led to the release of more nutrients into the oceans that stimulated even more photosynthesis by more newly evolved algae as well as older cyanobacteria ().

Years 2.6 to 3.6 BillionAccording to the fossil record, the first (e.g., fungi, plants, and many plant- and animal-like protoctists) evolved during this period, possibly along with giant single-celled but amoeboid (like grape-sized ). Multi-cellularity allowed fungi and plants to grow larger than their microbial ancestors. With the exception of the larger true Algae (seaweeds and kelp), however, most protoctists that persisted to modern times have remained microscopic in size. In May 2009, scientists announced the discovery of fossil evidence in the of Canada's Northwestern Territory of sponge-like animals that looked like ""blobs of gelatinous goo" and that lived on reefs towards the end of this period, around 850 million years ago, which supports molecular clock models of genetic evolution and divergence (). Supporting the rise in multi-cellular life, particularly those developing into animals which are unable to produce the oxygen that they need to respire, was a further rise in oxygen levels around 1.2 billion years ago that apparently allowed the gas to permeate into lake waters and their sediment beds, which apparently also supported non-photosynthetic sulphide-oxidating bacteria that left chemical traces from this era (; and ). By the end of this period (around 1.0 to 1.2 billion years ago), multi-cellular life apparently colonized aquatic environments on land by leaving fossilized evidence in freshwater lake sediments across northwestern (; and ).