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alto clef – the symbol on a music staff indicating that the third line from the bottom of a staff represents the pitch of middle C. It is one of five and is used primarily for writing music for the viola. Also called a .

AM – .

AM band – see .

ambience – (1) The sound that comes from the surrounding environment as opposed to coming directly from the sound source. (2) . See also . Not to be confused with , which means the atmosphere or mood of a particular environment.

ambience extraction – a method of removing information from a two-channel and using it to created . David Hafler developed one of the early systems of ambience extraction in the early 1960s, with a process he called Dynaquad, marketed by Hafler's company, . A few years later, Peter Scheiber patented a similar system that competed with in the early 1970s. cited several of Scheiber's patents when it developed the system. Also called , and .

ambience synthesis – a method of digitally synthesizing from information in a two-channel . Although similar in concept to , it uses digital technology and handles the data differently.

ambience track – the of the sets and locations in which a scene was shot recorded by the to be used in the final mix of a or production, used to make sure the background noise is consistent, without any unnatural changes.

ambient – (1) Pertainging to the surrounding environment. (2) A type of instrumental music designed to enhance the mood or atmosphere or induce calmness.

ambient audio – see .

ambient field – the area away from the sound source where the are greater than at the sound source. Also called .

ambient miking – placing a at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . Sometimes spelled . See also .

ambient microphone – a placed at a distance from the sound source to capture the or . This sound is often mixed with a mic close to the source (called a or ) to add , , or special effects or to improve . Sometimes called a , or for short.

ambient noise – see .

ambient sound – the that are present in a scene or , such as wind, water, crowds, and traffic. Ambient sounds are important in and work because they provide audio continuity between shots, they prevent unnatural silence when there is no other sound, and they can be used to establish a mood. Also called , or . See also .

ambient sound level – the due to at a given location, usually measured in dB relative to a reference pressure of 20 μPa (the ). The ambient sound level is measured with a , frequently using , in which case the measurements are specified in . Also called , or .

ambiophony – see .

Ambisonics – various recording and playback techniques, developed in the UK in the 1970s by the British , that use technology to create a variety of effects. The sound data can be and to produce a 2-dimensional (horizontal-only) or 3-dimensional (full-sphere) sound field. Unlike other surround sound formats, Ambisonics is not encoded into signals for specific , but contains representations of the sound field, called the B-format (see ), that includes source directions instead of speaker positions. This technique allows for the signal to be decoded specifically for the speaker setup at a given location or venue, allowing for a considerable amount of flexibility in the number of speakers and their position. Until recently Ambisonics has not been much of a commercial success, but with the advent of more powerful (as opposed to the used in the early years), interest in Ambisonics hs been increasing since the 1990s. See also .

AM broadcaster – a company or that its on the .

AM broadcasting – the of using .

American Association of Independent Music (A2IM) – a non-profit trade organization serving the independent music community by representing their interests in the marketplace, in the media, and in government affairs.

American Broadcasting Company (ABC) – a commercial US headquartered in New York City, NY, and owned by the Disney-ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. ABC originated in 1943 as a network when Edward J. Noble, owner of Life Savers candy and Rexall Drugs, purchased the Blue Network after the FCC ordered to divest its ownership. The following year, Noble acquired the rights to the name American Broadcasting Company and began using the name American Broadcasting Companies, Inc., for the parent corporation. ABC launched its television network in 1948. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. ABC merged with Capital Cities Communications in 1986. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company. In 2007, it sold the radio portion of the business to Citadel Broadcasting, becoming almost exclusively a television network.

American Federation of Musicians (AFM) – a union of performing artists and musicians. AFM membership guarantees that musicians will be paid at the minimum rate established by the union (union scale). Signatory companies (those having signed an agreement with AFM) can only hire union musicians and must pay union scale.

American Graphophone Company – a company founded in 1887 and licensed by the Volta Graphophone Company to manufacture the . The was founded in 1889 to sell the products manufactured by the American Graphophone Company. In 1895, the American Graphophone Company merged with the Columbia Phonograph Company, with the former conducting research and manufacturing and the latter managing marketing, sales, and distribution. The American Graphophone Company continued the manufacturer of Columbia products until 1916, when it was reorganized as the Columbia Graphophone Manufacturing Company.

American Loudspeaker Manufacturers Association (ALMA) – an international trade organization for companies that design, manufacture, sell, and test components and systems.

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – a private non-profit organization that oversees the development of voluntary standards for products, services, systems, processes, and personnel in the United States. It began as a joint effort to avoid creating conflicting standards when in 1918 six along with the the US departments of commerce, war, and the navy established the American Engineering Standards Committee (AESC). In 1928, it became the American Standards Association (ASA). In 1966, they reorganized and became the United States of America Standards Institute (USASI). The current name was adopted in 1969.

American standard pitch notation – see .

American Telephone & Telegraph Company (AT&T) – see .

American Wire Gauge (AWG) – a set of standards used for measuring and specifying non-ferrous wire conductor sizes (diameters), used primarily in the US and Canada. The higher the gauge number, the smaller the diameter. AWG is used only for non-ferrous wire used to conduct electricity, such as copper and aluminum. Steel wire uses a different gauge (the Washburn & Moen Gauge, which is also called the American Steel and Wire Gauge, or Steel Wire Gauge for short). AWG is also known as the Brown & Sharpe wire gauge. Household wiring typically is 12 or 14 gauge, whereas studio and audio wiring is usually in the range of 16 to 22. Some diameters for a sampling of AWG values is shown below:

The Quilcom BlueSky is a 16 band vocoder with a built-in synthesiser

QuikQuak. Audio plug-ins for PC & Mac. FX and Synths,

A-taper – see .

A-time – see .

atm – abbreviation for , when referring to the unit of .

atmos – short for , when referring to .

atmos mic – short for . See .

atmosphere – (1) The collection of gases surrounding the earth. (2) The air or climate in a specific place. (3) The pervading tone or mood of a place. (4) The that are present in a scene or , such as wind, water, crowds, and traffic. Also called . (5) A unit of defined as 101,325 (Pa), 1,013.25 , 760 , 29.92 in Hg, or 14.696 psi. Its symbol is . Sometimes called a . See also .

atmosphere microphone – see .

atmospheric pressure – is the force per unit area () exerted by the weight of air in the above it. As elevation increases, there is less overlying atmospheric mass, so atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing elevation. A is equal to 1 (atm), 101,325 (Pa), 101.325 kilopascals, 1,013.25 , 760 , 29.92 in Hg, or 14.696 psi. Also called .

A to D converter – see .

atonal – music not written in any or . The opposite of .

ATR – Audio Tape Recorder, as opposed to a . (2) Analog Tape Recorder, as opposed to a .

ATRAC – Adaptive TRansform Acoustic Coding. A family of proprietary developed by . Originally developed as a format for use with the , it has had several improvements over the years, such as ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, and ATRAC Advanced Lossless. ATRAC files usually have an .aa3 or .oma file extension.

ATSC – (1) Advanced Television Systems Committee. The agency that developed the standards for in the US and several other countries. (2) The standards for digital television transmission developed by the committee. ATSC replaced the analog television system in the US on June 12, 2009. With the adoption of , the original ATSC standard is now referred to a ATSC 1.0.

ATSC 1.0 – see , definition #2.

ATSC 3.0 – the latest standard currently being formulated by the for . The orginal standard, previously referred to simply as ATSC is now being referred to a ATSC 1.0. (See , definition #2.) The new standard offers support for newer technologies for , , , and . It includes many new improvements for improved television viewing, including , of up to 2160p (4K resolution), of 120 fps, wide , , , and the capabilty for datacasting. In the US, the approved regulations in November 2017 allowing broadcast stations to voluntarily offer ATSC 3.0 services, but they must be offered along with a standard ATSC digital signal. Unlike the transition from analog to digital ATSC, this transition will not be mandatory.

ATSC A/85 – the standard recommended by the for implementing audio control for under the standard. This standard differs only slightly (primarily the ) from the European version under .

attack – (1) The beginning of a note as it rises from near silence to its maximum level. Drums have a fast attack, while bowed strings have a slow attack. (2) The first of the four segments of an envelope. (3) Short for .

attack time – the time it takes for a device or to react to an . is a parameter used to set , , , , and other devices. Called for short.

attenuate – to reduce the of an , , or .

attenuation – the reduction in of an , , or .

attenuation distortion – see .

attenuator – a device that reduces the of a .

attenuator pad – one of several designs used to reduce the of a . See , and .

AU – short for .

au – an originally introduced by and commonly used in Unix and Java systems, as well as on early web pages. It uses a simple 8-bit to encode data at a sample rate of 8000 Hz, although other sample rates are sometimes used. Although originally headerless, newer files have a header consisting of six 32-bit words and an optional information section. These files use the extension .au or .snd. Also known as the or .

Audacity – a free open-source available for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, and other operating systems, developed by Dominic Mazzoni and Roger Dannenberg at Carnegie Mellon University.

audible – able to be detected or heard by the human ear. See also and .

Audinate Pty Ltd. – a company founded in 2006 and headquartered in Ultimo (Sydney), Australia, that develops and markets , a system for transmitting over (). After Motorola closed its Australian research facility in 2003, a team of researchers took their research to the National Information and Communication Technology Australia (NICTA) in Sydney, Australia, where with the help of government funding, they began to develop Dante. In 2006, Audinate was founded to bring Dante to the market.

audio – (1) Vibrations () that are detectable by the human ear as . See also . (2) Sound that is , , , or , whether , , or . (3) Pertaining to sound. (4) The sound portion of a or . (5) A sound .

audio analyzer – an instrument used to test and measure performance of electronic and electro-acoustical devices, using a variety of parameters, such as , , , , , and . See also .

audio analysis – the process of testing and measuring performance of electronic and electro-acoustical devices, using a variety of parameters, such as , , , , , and . See also .

audio artifact – any unwanted that was not in the original usually caused by a limitation or malfunction in the audio hardware or software.

audio bandwidth – see .

audiobook – the of the reading of a book, typically a novel, but non-fiction and technical books are also available. Originally these were sold on , but later became available on . Sometimes called a or .

audio capture – see .

audio cassette – see .

audio chain – the series of audio equipment used to obtain a or to a live performance, such as , , , and . Also called a .

audio channel – see .

audio clip – see , definition #3.

audio coding – another term for of .

audio coding format – a method for storing or transmitting , such as , , , and . The method by which audio is is the . For example, LAME is the most common codec for encoding MP3 files, but there are a number of others that can be used. Audio encoded in a particular audio coding format is normally encapsulated within a known as an , which usually contains the encoded audio and that provides such information as to the codec, bit rates, and other information needed to decompress the data, as well as title, artist, and other information. The main exception is the MP3 file, which does not use a container file. The method of adding metadata such as is a work around that takes advantage of the fact that MP3 players ignore such data. An is a document that details the technical details of the coding format. If the document has been written and approved by a , it is usually called an . Audio coding format is sometimes called .

audio compression – see . Note: is often used to refer to both and , which can lead to some confusion.

audio compression format – see .

audio compression manager (ACM) – a mostly obsolete program for managing audio on Windows platforms. Files encoded with this process use the extension .acm, and are usually stored in a such as or .

audio coding specification – see .

audio coding standard – see .

audio editor – see , definition #2.

audio engineer – see .

Audio Engineering Society (AES) – a professional organization established in 1948 for engineers, scientists, other individuals with an interest or involvement in audio technology and the professional audio industry.

audio expansion – see .

audio feedback – see .

audio file – a audio that can be stored in a computer or other digital medium such as a . Also called a , or .

audio file format – a method for storing audio data as a file on a computer system, which can be either or . The method by which audio is compressed and is the and is separate from the file format. The method in which a codec is presented is called an . The audio file format is a , which usually contains the encoded audio and that provides such information as the codec, , , and other information needed to decompress the data, as well as title, artist, and other information. Audio file formats are usually indicated by their . Some formats can use more than one codec. For example, a WAV file can be encoded using , , and several other codecs. Uncompressed formats include (.wav), (.aif), (.bwf), and (.au), as well as a format, which has the -coded data, but no or . There are several formats with with lossless compression, such as (.flac), (.ape), (.wv), , (.tta), Advanced Lossless (.aa3), (.m4a), , , , (.wma), and (.shn). Formats with lossy compression include (.mp3), (.ogg), (.mpc), (.mp4), (.aa3), (.ra), and (.wma).

audio filter – see .

audio frequencies – see .

Audio Frequency Modulation (AFM) – a method of high quality audio used on and video systems.

Audio Guidelines for Over-the-Top Television and Video Streaming (AGOTTVS) – guidelines established by an technical group formed in early 2016 for managing the of of and content for consurmers via (OTT) and (OVD).

The estimation of channel at pilot frequencies is based on LS and MMSE estimation techniques by using BPSK modulation scheme, and multi-path Rayleigh fading channels as channel models.