link reduced wind speed to the urban heat island effect and higher ..

Wide open windy spaces are needed in order for this system to be efficient.

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The bottle garden is a close relative of the biosphere: a tiny garden growing inside abottle, a glass sphere, or a demijohn. The main difference is that soil is the maincomponent not water. The container can be kept sealed or opened like a terrarium. Ourswill be more for just plants whereas the terrarium may have animals. These gardens in abottle, can be cured and perfected as a system, they are also very decorative, in fact youcan treat them as a bonsai with not only a single tree, but whole landscapes. A carefullychosen stone becomes a rock, a small plot of moss represents a great prairie. A contorted,little plant is now a hundred year old tree. Maybe a marsh wetlands with peat moss,mushrooms and ferns is more to your liking. Maybe appropriate succulent plants with sandand rocks for a vast desert landscape. The choice is yours. There is no rigid rule aboutbeing either an open or a closed garden. It maybe useful to keep the lid on to retainwater. Or eventually, the plants grow up and need to hang down the outside.
If the container is always sealed, the challenge becomes quite demanding. In fact, it thenis necessary to obtain an equilibrium between plants and animals in order to keep aneffective cycle of substances and energy, but if this is difficult in a predominantlywater environment, it is even more difficult in a just moist environment. So, the gardenhas to contain a moist soil, plants, little animals like terrestrial isopods (i.e.: sowbug, pill bug), earthworms, etc. Plants have to be resistant to high moisture and have asmall size and limited growth. To avoid roots rotten, you can also try to refer tohydroponics and substitute the ground with small sized expanded clay or with gravel. Inthis case you will have more difficulties in hosting animal species, so it will have to beleft open. It is important you place your garden in a cool and well illuminated place, butaway from direct sunlight. Open or closed, a bottle garden is a fascinating thing, and theidea itself of a little and self-sufficient world is fascinating as well. There are peopleso fond of bottle gardens they work at them a long time, taking care of them using longand thin tools and to observe these environments till they imagine to be one of theirinhabitants.
Then choose among these main options:
1 - Opened bottle garden, containing moist ground, plants and possible little animals. Itis suited for people who love taking care of gardens and who have a flair for
the architecture of little wide spaces.
2 - Opened bottle garden, prepared in hydroponics and containing plants. It is suited forthose who tend to forget to water their plants.
3 - Sealed bottle garden, holding moist soil, plants, and some little animals. Thisexercise is suitable for people who are keen on biology and scientific research. They willhave to find appropriate plants and animals suitable for a sealed ecosystem and will haveto achieve the necessary conditions for a long survival. This research, bibliographic inpart and experimental, will keep students happily busy for long time.
The educational value of these little ecosystems is evident. They can be carried out evenin a school, where the teacher will be allowed to illustrate their characteristics topupils and encourage interesting discussions. In the web sites below, you will findimportant practical information in building your bottle gardens.
Terrariums : Miniature Worlds in a Bottle!
BBC online, how to gardening, bottle garden
Forum
Un jardin en bouteille
Le terrarium : Un monde miniature dans une bouteille!
Internet keywords: garden bottle jar, jardin bouteille bonbonne.

In the case of wind power, the wind must blow at a specific speed and from a specific direction for optimum efficiency.

GCSE Physics – unit 1, unit 2 and unit 3. AQA

Properly managed shelter-belts and windbreaks can yield wood products from weedings and thinnings, pruning and rotation cuts without greatly reducing their protective effects.

The Effect of Wind Speed on Wildfires -Group 4 alex dickey sam heck tess rinaldo ..

Truck transport of materials for the windbreaks was originally foreseen, but during the second phase of project activity it became apparent that most transport could be undertaken more efficiently and cost-effectively using draught animals.

Analyzing the effect of wind on flight: pitfalls and solutions Journal of Experimental Biology


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Air movement must attain a certain velocity or become an "efficient wind" (with enough speed to generate visible movement of particles at the soil level) before it can generate deflation and transport of particles.

Last Word Archive | New Scientist

It should be apparent from this brief review of the causes of wind erosion that the most effective way to control it would be through the introduction of land management systems that:

do not lead to the elimination of vegetation cover over large areas;
reduce the length of fetch to decrease the momentum of wind;
increase soil cohesiveness or armour the soil surface to prevent the lifting of soil particles by wind;
reduce the velocity of wind near the ground and deflect its direction;
control the source of dune-building material.
As regards ways for preventing wind erosion, the most effective ones include:
locating livestock watering facilities on non-erodible soil;
protecting agricultural fields and heavy-use areas with shelter-belts;
maintaining a good balance between herbaceous and woody plants;
spacing of shrubs and trees on grazing lands to reduce wind velocity.
Appropriate farming practicesThe cultivation of crops on arid lands without causing wind erosion is possible provided one or more appropriate basic land-use principles are observed.

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In an attempt to combat the negative effects of desertification on the environment, the resource base and the people who depend on them, the government (with technical assistance from FAO and financial support from the United Nations Development Programme and the UN Sudano-Sahelian Organization) is in the process of developing a National Plan for Desertification Control on a region-by-region basis.

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If placed in a suitable nutrient environment, cells and tissues of many organisms are ableto reproduce and form new plants or animals. Now, we will deal with vegetable tissues,whose culture is simpler than that of animal cellules and tissues. It is necessary toprepare a nutritive and sterilized culture medium for the piece of plant tissue. Keep theculture in the suitable conditions of light and temperature and which vary from plant toplant. Over many days, you will observe the growth of a callus or roots or shoots. In thisway you can obtain even whole plants (cloning). These experiments show that special cellskeep all the information necessary to generate the whole plant.
As we have mentioned, it is necessary avoid bacteria and moulds in the cultures. For thisyou will need sterilize tools, vials, tubes, and nutrient medium. Place each in anautoclave for a ten minutes or, lacking an autoclave, a pressure cooker. The tissues aswell have to be free from microorganisms and they have to be sterilized with bleach (40%solution for 15 min) or with alcohol.
The transfer of the tissues into the test tubes has to be made in aseptic conditions,using a sterile box. Lacking that, make your first trials in a quiet place, as devoid ofwind and dust as possible. The culture medium should contain water, vitamins (particularlythose of the B-complex. For this, use yeast extract), sugars, mineral salts. To enrich thewater with mineral salts, boil some water with a handful of soil, then let settle andfilter it. Usually, people also insert 0.5-0.8% of agar-agar to "solidify" themedium. As culture medium, coconut milk has been used. It contains mineral salts, sugars,vitamins and growth hormones.
1 - For yours first tests of micropropagation, use strawberries tissues.
2 - If this simple experiment interests you, you can continue on the way of the invitro culture of vegetable tissues. In fact you can propagate a lot of plants in thisway. Plants easy to culture are the following: tomato, potato, strawberry, chrysanthemum,geranium, sunflower, tobacco, carrot and onion. You can use tissues obtained from seeds,such as the embryo, but you can use also tissues taken from adult plants, such as tissuesof roots, stems, apical buds, shoots, leaves, even single cells. Each plant and tissue hasits own needs. They are different from each other. You can try the influence of thevegetable hormones, special nutrients, etc.
This field is very broad and complex so, if you are interested in continuing with theseexperiments, you can buy special books and you should build a sterile box.
Plant Tissue Culture for the Gardener
Basic Principle in Plant Tissue Culture Technique
Plant Tissue Culture Kit Manual
Plant Micropropagation Using African Violet Leaves
Plant Tissue Culture (links)
Internet keywords: in vitro culture plant tissue micropropagation.