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"A plasma is an ionized gas where the magnetic and electric field play a key role in binding the material together. Plasmas are present in almost every astrophysical environment, from the surface of pulsars to the Earth's ionosphere. This module explores the unique properties of plasmas, such as particle gyration and magnetic reconnection. The emphasis is on the plasmas found in the Solar System, from the solar corona and solar wind to the outer reaches of the heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Fundamental astrophysical processes are explored, such as the formation of supersonic winds, magnetic energy release, shock waves and particle acceleration. The module highlights the links between the plasmas we can observe with spacecraft and the plasmas in more distant and extreme astrophysical objects."
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The course will set out the basic tenets and principles of copyright law, as understood within the international context, and which is binding on all WTO Member States. This will entail the study of the evolution and implementation of major copyright treaties. The course will develop these principles by looking at the current crucial issues which are facing copyright users and industries, including the following: ownership, authorial power, collective management, networked technologies and user rights.
Clay minerals: Clay minerals are natural clay formed by a net of stratified tetrahedral or octahedral layers and mainly composed by molecules of silicon, aluminum and oxygen (). Clays added to the diet can bind and immobilize toxic materials such as aflatoxins and heavy metals etc., may present in the gastrointestinal tract of chicken and thus, reduce toxicity (). As a result of their binding properties, clay minerals have been widely used in poultry diets to improve chicken performance when diets are supposed to contain mycotoxins (). Some of the molecules of clay minerals such as, bentonites, zeolite, kaolin, montmorillonite, smectite, illite, kaolinite, biotic and clinoptilolite, etc., have been reported to exhibit beneficial effects on the intestinal health of chicken due to additional toxin binding action ().
Click Chemistry Publications - Scripps Research Institute
Prerequisites: Metabolic Pathways (SBS905). This module covers various aspects of enzyme catalysis including: enzymes as proteins; enzymes as catalysts; enzyme classification; and the role of molecular mobility in enzyme catalysis. You will also investigate the active site concept and the catalytic and substrate binding properties of amino acid residue sidechains. Binding energy, driving forces and free energy relationships; the use of kinetic analysis in the study of enzyme mechanism and inhibition; and recent theories on catalysis are also discussed. Several enzyme mechanisms will be described in detail to illustrate the applications of biophysical techniques (eg spectroscopy, crystallography) and site directed mutagenesis in the study of such mechanisms. you will be taught a number of important computer-based applications towards the study of enzymes, including the use of bioinformatics and molecular graphics programmes.