The word retrieval deficit hypothesis and developmental dyslexia .
Journal of Speech and Hearing Research, 35, 1064-1075.
McBride-Chang, C., Franklin, R.(1996) Structural invariance in the associations of naming speed, phonological awareness, and verbal reasoning in good and poor readers: A test of the double deficit hypothesis.
The Double-Deficit Hypothesis for the developmental dyslexias.
Unfortunately, less is known about RapidAutomatic Naming. It is not as easy to identify at a young age, andeven when identified, improving RAN and visual processing speed is considerablymore difficult than helping children develop phoneme awareness.
However, there is still a road to success available, and good teacherscan navigate their students down that road easily (Lovett, Steinbach,and Frijters, 2000). As I said, it is possible to learn tofly with one engine, and it is much, much easier to teach children tobe aware of phonemes in speech than it is to make them process visualinformation faster. Ensuring that all children develop phonemeawareness in kindergarten is a good way to ensure that all childrenhave at least one engine to start with.
For children to developgood decoding skills, ideally they should have good phonological processingskills (Engine 1), and they should also be able to process and identify visualinformation very rapidly (Engine 2), a process called Rapid AutomaticNaming (Torgesen, Wagner, Rashotte, Burgess, and Hecht, 1997).
Engine 1 -- Phonological Processing Skills
Phonological processing skills have to do with the child's ability to identify and manipulate sounds within speech. Typically, the assessment of phonological processing skills that is used is a test of phoneme awareness which measures the child's ability to segment and manipulate phonemes in speech. For example, a child may be asked to remove the "LLL" sound in the word "PLAY" ("PAY") or add a "SSS" sound to the beginning of the word "TICK" ("STICK").
The reason this assessment is so important has to do with the fact thatso many children (possibly as many as 40%) do not have good phonologicalprocessing skills when they enter school. Some children, for a varietyof reasons, do not develop an appreciation of what makes words rhyme, andthey have little appreciation for alliteration (words that begin with thesame sounds, such as "Ten Talking Turtles on the Telephone"). The soundsin speech are not important to these children -- they do not need to knowthat the word "SANDWICH" begins with the same sound as "SNOW" to be ableto ask for a sandwich for lunch. Phoneme awareness and indeed phonologicalprocessing skills in general are not important for oral communication, soyoung children often pay little or no attention to the sounds in speech beforethey come to school. However, they are critically important for readingand writing (Wagner, Torgesen, and Rashotte, 1994; Gottardo, Stanovich, andSiegel, 1996; Shankweiler, Crain, Katz, Fowler, Liberman, Brady, Thornton,Lundquist, Dreyer, Fletcher, Stuebing, Shaywitz, and Shaywitz, 1995)
Engine 2 -- Rapid Automatic Naming (RAN)
The other engine I mentioned earlier -- translating visual information into a phonological code quickly and easily -- is relatively new in the field ofreading research. This skill is often described as Rapid Automatic Naming(RAN), and reading researchers do not know very much about it yet. Whatwe do know is that, just as some children are taller than their peers orcan run faster than their peers, some children are also much faster at identifyingvisual information than their peers.
If you ask a group of children to run around the block, you would expectsome children to finish faster than others.
“The double-deficit hypothesis for the developmental ..
Contribution to the Field
Phonological-Core Variable Difference Model
Presented by Evelyn Romo
The term "dyslexia" was examined by Stanovich.
The Double-Deficit Hypothesis for Decoding Fluency
Since college, especially in graduate school, I developed the habit of reading between 4 and 6 hours a day. I have no data, but I am sure that all of that practice has increasedmy reading rate substantially. It is not easy to affect Rapid AutomaticNaming, but if anything is going to do it, practice has got to be the answer.
Double deficit hypothesis developmental dyslexias - …
They argue that reading disabled students also have a deficit in rapid naming skills.
Wolf and Bowers's model places reading-disabled children into one of three categories: