dissolved inorganic, organic and total carbon ..

Primary Productivity & Dissolved Oxygen Lab - …

Carbon Cycle and the Earth's Climate - Columbia …

Carbon in this context is a catchall phrase which refers to carbon-containing (i.e., organic) chemicals that are either dissolved in the water itself (= Dissolved Organic Carbon, DOC) or suspended in the water as small particles, including single-cell organisms (= Particulate Organic Carbon, POC) (Holmes-Farley, 2004). Together, these carbon sources are called Total Organic Carbon, TOC. The divide between DOC and POC is arbitrary and is based strictly on the capabilities of commercially available filtering materials. At present, the operational definition of DOC includes carbon-containing material that passes through the pores of a 0.2 micron filter. Any carbon-containing material left behind, which includes most bacteria/single-celled organisms, then is labeled Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) (Benner, 2002).

Chave Keith E., Suess Erwin. 1970. Calcium carbonate saturation in seawater: effects of dissolved organic matter. Limnol Oceanogr 15: 633-637.

Water Analysis-Dissolved Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - …

Dissolved organic and inorganic nutrients, and their role to coral reefs (and corals) is still dramatically unknown. The complications arising from methodological problems and poor studies have only compounded the confusion. In terms of corals reefs, the amounts of most dissolved nutrients, except carbon in most cases, are very low. Depending on the location, the reef area, and the organism, various nutrients can limit the growth of the entity. An example well known to many is the nutrient limitation of algae. The recycling nature of the coral-zooxanthellae symbiosis has given a competitive edge to corals in low nutrient environments, despite the abundance of highly grazed turfs, unicellular microalgae, and crustose coralline algae on reefs. However, and as we saw from the results of excess nitrogen available to zooxanthellae, the algae are eager to take advantage of increased dissolved nutrients. Such inputs can lead to algal dominance in the lack of sufficient grazing.

Significance and mechanisms of photosynthetic production of dissolved organic carbon in a coastal eutrophic ecosystem}, year = }

Corals are able to take up various forms of both organic and inorganic dissolved nitrogen. As with phosphorus, the zooxanthellae appear to be nutrient limited by their host, and here it extends to nitrogen. Particulate material or zooplankton captured by the coral are available first to the coral whereas the animal has little control over the availability of dissolved intracellular nitrogen. Again, as with phosphorus, the algae are able to control the amount of nitrogen that they take up, provided it is made available (as in enriched conditions). However, unlike phosphorus, availability of dissolved nitrogen to zooxanthellae has a number of important effects: First, nitrogen made available to the zooxanthellae is taken up and used to produce proteins and increase the rate of mitosis. Even slightly elevated nitrogen levels can quickly result in rapid increases in the density of zooxanthellae as they use it to fuel their own reproduction. Second, there is a subsequent drop in the amount of carbon and nitrogen translocated by the algae to the host. With increased densities, the zooxanthellae begin to translocate less carbon to their host, as apparently they need it themselves (Muscatine et al 1989). It is also somewhat equivocal that corals are able to utilize nitrate (which exists nearly totally in its ionic state at physiological pH) at all, and an inability to find nitrate reductase in many studies makes the ultimate importance of this dissolved nitrogen source to corals (and anemones) rather tenuous. However, it is unambiguously true that ammonium is a sought-after nitrogen source by both coral host and algal partner.

Significance and mechanisms of photosynthetic production of dissolved organic carbon in a coastal eutrophic ecosystem


Carbon Dioxide and Carbonic Acid - Chemistry …

Microbial use of dissolved organic material adsorbed onto carbonate sand is responsible for the not infrequent "cementing" of sand beds in aquaria. Other organic aggregates may occur with the absorption of materials onto the surface of air bubbles (the general principle behind protein skimming, whereby dissolved proteins are removed by adherence to foam produced by the skimmer). As a side note, it is often said that the foam produced by wave action acts like "natural skimming." This is frequently countered by those saying this analogy has never been proven. Well, it has been proven - often (see references at the end of this article). A final important mode or organic aggregation, and perhaps most applicable to coral reefs, occurs through the production of mucus by many organisms. Mucus consists of mainly sugars and glycoproteins - soluble materials in and of themselves. However, the formation of mucus and its release in a matrix of chains of these materials, may result in a particulate material. This material is both utilized directly by many organisms, and also forms the basis for a predominant fraction of the particulate "marine snow" on reefs. In the latter situation, it is utilized and loosely adhered together by microbes and subsequently ensnares other particulate material, forming even larger accumulations that are clearly no longer "dissolved' by any means (Figure 2).

chloroplast | Function, Location, & Diagram | …

Although a small but possibly significant percentage of the sinking organic material becomes buried in the ocean sediment, most of the dissolved carbon dioxide is eventually returned to the surface via - but this can take centuries or millennia.Measuring the level of plankton activity in the ocean is difficult.

ap sample lab 12 dissolved oxygen - Biology Junction

What are nutrients? They are substances that are required or produced for use in the normal metabolic functioning of an organism or cell. Depending on the organism, they may include unusual substances, such as vanadium or yttrium. However, basic organic constituents are typically far less exotic. Thus, the term dissolved "nutrients" typically refers to common metabolic building blocks such as carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus. Despite the heavy uptake of elements such as calcium by calcifying organisms, calcium is not normally considered a major "nutrient." However, trace amounts of calcium are used in cell function and metabolism of most organisms. It may be notable, though, that dissolved organic material, and inorganic ions such as magnesium, may interfere significantly with the precipitation of calcium carbonate (Chave and Suess 1970; Meyers and Quinn 1971).