compare and contrast chemiosmosis in mitochondria …

Compare and contrast chemiosmosis in ..

Essay comparing and contrasting photosynthesis and respiration

We have seen how ATP synthase acts like a proton-powered turbine, and uses the energy released from the down-gradient flow of protons to synthesize ATP. The process of pumping protons across the membrane to generate the proton gradient is called . Chemiosmosis is driven by the flow of electrons down the electron transport chain, a series of protein complexes in the membrane that forms an electron bucket brigade. Each of these protein complexes accepts and passes on electrons down the chain, and pumps a proton across the membrane for each electron it passes on. Ultimately, the last complex in the electron transport chain passes the electrons to molecular oxygen (O2) to make water, in the case of aerobic respiration.

ATP & Respiration: Crash Course Biology #7 - YouTube

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The earliest cells, prokaryotes living in an early Earth devoid of free oxygen, used various alternative electron acceptors to carry on anaerobic cellular respiration. After cyanobacteria invented oxygenic photosynthesis and pumped oxygen gas into the oceans and atmosphere, bacteria that adapted their electron transport chains to exploit oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor gained higher energy yield and thus a competitive advantage. One line of aerobic bacteria took up an endosymbiotic relationship within a larger host cell, providing ATP in exchange for organic molecules. The endosymbiont was the evolutionary ancestor of mitochondria. This endosymbiosis must have occurred in the ancestor of all eukaryotes, because all existing eukaryotes have mitochondria (Martin and Mentel, 2010). The evidence for the endosymbiont origin of mitochondria can be found in: