Glossary | Linus Pauling Institute | Oregon State University

Slightly less than half of the cholesterol in the body derives from biosynthesis de novo

Bile Acid Synthesis, Metabolism and Biological Functions

The researchers theorize that oxidant stress within the liver leads to unfavorable changes in bile composition that promote precipitation of both cholesterol and bilirubin These findings corroborate earlier studies showing that antioxidant deficiencies can induce gallstone formation in animals.

The researchers believe silymarin may inhibit HMG-CoA reductase, the enzyme responsible for cholesterol synthesis in the liver.

Bile Acid Synthesis and Utilization

Gamma Glutamyltransferase: GGT – This enzyme is has its highest concentration in the kidneys and pancreas, but it is also found in the liver and other organs. The major proportion of GGT in the serum seems to come from the liver. Elevations of GGT in disease seem to stem from new synthesis rather than leakage, therefore the changes seen due to disease are not spectacular. Large elevations of GGT are more commonly associated with pancreatitis and bile duct obstruction.

The explanation for this paradox may be that the liver synthesizes less cholesterol as dietary cholesterol increases.

Vomiting (emesis), nausea, or diarrhea - Orange colored urine or mucous membranes due to jaundice.

Liver damage from Drugs
There are many medications that can cause harm including stating drugs used for cholesterol.

Bile is formed in the liver from bile acids  cholesterol, minerals and phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine or lecithin.