The reactant side to the photosynthesis equation ..
Some bacteria use Photosystem I and some use Photosystem II. More than two bya, and maybe more than three bya, cyanobacteria used both, and a miraculous instance of innovation tied them together. were then used to strip electrons from water. Although the issue is still controversial regarding when it happened and how, that instance of cyanobacteria's using manganese to strip electrons from water is responsible for oxygenic photosynthesis. It seems that some enzymes that use manganese may have been "drafted" into forming the manganese cluster responsible for splitting water in oxygenic photosynthesis. Water is not an easy molecule to strip an electron from, a single cyanobacterium seems to have “stumbled” into it, and it probably happened only . Once an electron was stripped away from water in Photosystem I, then stripping away a proton (a hydrogen nucleus) essentially removed one hydrogen atom from the water molecule. That proton was then used to drive a “turbine” that manufactures ATP, and wonderful show how those protons drive that enzyme turbine (). Oxygen is a waste product of that innovative ATP factory.
Photosynthesis: Crash Course Biology #8 - YouTube
Ask students what they already know about light bulbs and light. Have them complete a KHWL graphic organizer to record what they KNOW, HOW they know this information, and what they WANT TO KNOW about light bulbs and how they produce light. Discuss students’ answers. 9
I was also regularly dismayed by orthodox scientific and academic works that dealt with the human brain, consciousness, human nature, , FE technology, and the like, in which the authors accepted declassified government documents at face value (as in not wondering what else remained classified, for starters) or looked no further than 19th-century investigations. Direct personal experience is far more valuable than all of the experimental evidence that be amassed; there is no substitute for it, as that is where comes from. Armchair scientists who accept the skeptics' word for it have taken the easy way out and rely on unreliable "investigators" to tell them about the nature of reality. They consequently do not have informed opinions, or perhaps more accurately, they have opinions. The holy warriors’ efforts aside, the scientific data is impressive regarding what has been called “psi” and other terms, which clearly demonstrated abilities of consciousness that are still denied and neglected by mainstream science. , but he was a voice in the wilderness.
LabBench Activity Plant Pigments and Photosynthesis
The energy from controlled fire allowed humans to , , and socially organize in new ways. Humans commandeered energy that otherwise and used it for immediate human benefit. It was also the first great human robbery. All heterotrophs “” energy from other life forms to live. The primary exception is the symbiosis that . But no animal had ever robbed energy from ecosystems on that scale before. By making fires, humans were liberating many times the energy that their biological processes used - energy that could have fed forest ecosystems. While humans were only using deadwood, it was the least destructive to forest ecosystems. But when humans began burning forests to flush out animals to kill and make biomes suitable for animals to hunt, they were destroying and altering ecosystems on a vast scale. A cord of wood provides about four years of the calories that fuel a human adult’s body, and one hectare can provide a sustainable annual harvest of about ten years of human calories. A family of four using a hectare for firewood on a sustainable basis would be using more than twice their caloric intake for burning wood. Very little of that released energy would benefit humans if they burned it over a campfire, as humans did for the entire epoch of the hunter-gatherer; that liberated energy largely went straight into the sky. The direct benefit to humans would be the energy that went into cooking food, what warmed human flesh, what was used to make tools, and the benefits of scaring off predators and providing light at night. More indirect benefits would have been ecosystem changes to provide human-digestible calories, such as American Indians burning the woodlands and plains to make environments conducive to animals that they could easily hunt. In , the earliest epochs are the most uncertain, but saying that hunter-gatherer humans used 2.5 times their dietary calories in their economy is probably, perhaps greatly, understating the case. That 5% efficiency number is also a rough estimate, and both numbers could be refined by a scientifically performed effort. Maybe somebody has already done it. The numbers in that table for subsequent epochs are more accurate, and the most accurate of all are those for , and I live in one. The increases in efficiency became more modest with each epoch as the limits of were approached.
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What is fire? That may seem too-elementary a question, but understanding what it is and where it came from is vitally important for understanding the human journey. The first fires were the quick release of stored sunlight energy that life forms, plants in that instance, had used to build themselves as they made their “decisions,” and it was from vegetation that recently died and was dry enough to burn. The energy was released from burning so fast that it became far hotter (because the molecules were violently "pushed" by the reaction that also released photons) than the biological process of making animals warm-blooded. Hot enough in fact that the released photons' (energetic enough) so that human eyes could see them, in a phenomenon called flames. Flames are visible side-effects of that intense energy release. The rapid movement of the molecules as they rocketed due to that great release of energy is the motion that powers the industrial age. Those rocketing molecules move pistons in automobile engines and , and are behind the damaging explosions of bombs and the propulsive explosions of rockets. For more than one million years, all human fires were made by burning vegetation, and wood in particular. What was fire doing? Energy stored by plants, trees in particular, was violently released by controlled fires for human-serving purposes of warmth, light, food preparation (to obtain more energy from food) and protection from predation, and it also became the heart of social gatherings. Humans have stared into fires for a million years or more.