Antarctica :: Antarctic Treaty System
List of tentative WP1 participants (Level 3)
J. Dyment, IPGP, France (Geophysics, mineral resources and hydrothermal circulation); N. Dubilier, MPI-MM, Germany (Biology, chemosynthesis and symbiosis); Y. Fouquet, Ifremer, France (Geochemistry, hydrothermal systems, mineral resources); W. Bach, Univ. Bremen, Germany (Geochemistry, modelling of deep-seafloor processes), D. Daffonchio, Univ. Milano, Italy (Microbiology, extremophiles); R. Mills, Univ. Leeds, UK (Geochemistry, min. alteration, microbe-mineral interactions); R. Vuillemin, UPMC-Paris, France (In situ experimentation, seafloor observatories); A. Weightman, Univ. Cardiff, UK (Microbiology, biodiversity); A. Caloco, Univ. Azores, Portugal (Ecology, structure and diversity of hydrothermal chemosynthetic ecosystems); D. Canfield, Univ. Odense, Denmark (Biogeochemistry and evolution of the oceans and Earth); R. Pedersen, Univ. Bergen, Norway (Geodynamics, geochemistry, geomicrobiology); A. Godfroy, Ifremer-UBO, France (Microbiology, extremophiles); R. Lutz, Rutgers Univ., USA (Ecology); D. Kelley, Univ. Washington, USA (Hydrothermal processes, microbe-mineral interactions, underwater technology, in situ instrumentation); K. Takai, JAMSTEC, Japan (Microbiology).
Chemosynthesis - Reference Module in Earth Systems …
What is fire? That may seem too-elementary a question, but understanding what it is and where it came from is vitally important for understanding the human journey. The first fires were the quick release of stored sunlight energy that life forms, plants in that instance, had used to build themselves as they made their “decisions,” and it was from vegetation that recently died and was dry enough to burn. The energy was released from burning so fast that it became far hotter (because the molecules were violently "pushed" by the reaction that also released photons) than the biological process of making animals warm-blooded. Hot enough in fact that the released photons' (energetic enough) so that human eyes could see them, in a phenomenon called flames. Flames are visible side-effects of that intense energy release. The rapid movement of the molecules as they rocketed due to that great release of energy is the motion that powers the industrial age. Those rocketing molecules move pistons in automobile engines and , and are behind the damaging explosions of bombs and the propulsive explosions of rockets. For more than one million years, all human fires were made by burning vegetation, and wood in particular. What was fire doing? Energy stored by plants, trees in particular, was violently released by controlled fires for human-serving purposes of warmth, light, food preparation (to obtain more energy from food) and protection from predation, and it also became the heart of social gatherings. Humans have stared into fires for a million years or more.
The is one of life’s most important, in which some bacteria fix nitrogen for biological use and others release nitrogen back to the atmosphere. Nitrogen’s relatively inert nature and preference for being bonded to itself is why it is the dominant atmospheric gas, at 78% of the atmosphere’s volume. It has held that dominant status for billions of years.
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Nitrogen and phosphorus are the most vital elements for life after carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. In its pure state in nature, nitrogen, like hydrogen and oxygen, is a diatomic molecule. Hydrogen in nature is single-bonded to itself, oxygen is double-bonded, and nitrogen is triple-bonded. Because of that , nitrogen is quite unreactive and prefers to stay bonded to itself. In nature, nitrogen will not significantly react with other substances unless the temperature () is very high. Most nitrogen compounds in nature are created when the nitrogen and oxygen that comprise more than 99% of Earth’s atmosphere react under lightning’s influence to create nitric oxide, which then reacts with oxygen to form nitrogen dioxide, and atmospheric water combines with that to make nitrous and nitric acids, which then fall to Earth’s surface in precipitation. Certain kinds of bacteria “fix” the nitrogen from the acidic rain into biological systems. Also, some bacteria can fix nitrogen directly from atmospheric nitrogen, but it is an that uses the energy in eight ATP molecules to fix each atom of nitrogen. For the earliest life on Earth, nitrogen would have been essential, and , where .
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis ..
The critical feature of earliest life had to be a way to reproduce itself, and is common to all cellular life today. The DNA that exists today was almost certainly not a feature of the first life. The most accepted hypothesis is that . The mechanism today is that DNA makes RNA, and RNA makes proteins. DNA, RNA, proteins, sugars, and fats are the most important molecules in life forms, and very early on, protein “learned” the most important trick of all, which was an energy innovation: facilitate biological reactions. If we think about at the molecular level, it is the energy that crashes molecules into each other, and if they are crashed into each other fast enough and hard enough, the reaction becomes more likely. But that is an incredibly inefficient way to do it. It is like putting a key in a room with a lock in a door and shaking up the room in the hope that the key will insert itself into the lock during one of its collisions with the room’s walls. Proteins make the process far easier, and those proteins are called enzymes.