Purdue OWL: APA Formatting and Style Guide

Please use the example at the bottom of this page to cite the Purdue OWL in APA.

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The preferred method of reporting P-values is to use an exact number, with two or three significant decimal places rather than as a range or category (e.g., NS, > .05, or takes a strictly Pearsonian view of probabilities as absolutely, categorically significant or absolutely, categorically non-significant. Sir R. A. Fisher advocated the position that probabilities can be interpreted with varying degrees of signficance. By providing an exact p-value rather than a range, readers may adopt either approach to evaluating probabilities. Additionally, when evaluating the strength of an effect, in the absence of other measures of effect size, the p-value can convey the strength of the finding. For instance, a p-value of .054 is more encouraging as a line for further study (say, with a larger sample size) than a p-value of .67. Additionally, a p-value of .012 indicates a stronger effect than a p-value of .049. (See page 34 of the Publication Manual).

This page outlines the correct format for books and book chapters in an APA reference list:

APA Interactive - OWLL - Massey University

Include a page header (also known as the "running head") at the top of every page. To create a page header/running head, insert page numbers flush right. Then type "TITLE OF YOUR PAPER" in the header flush left using all capital letters. The running head is a shortened version of your paper's title and cannot exceed 50 characters including spacing and punctuation.

The first page number of the chapter, usually containing the title and introduction.

Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 5th edition of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page.

The final page number of the chapter, usually containing the end of the references or footnotes.


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APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

General Format General APA Guidelines

The title page should contain the title of the paper, the author's name, and the institutional affiliation. Include the page header (described above) flush left with the page number flush right at the top of the page. Please note that on the title page, your page header/running head should look like this:

APA Style Frequently Asked Questions | EU Libraries

Summary: APA (American Psychological Association) style is most commonly used to cite sources within the social sciences. This resource, revised according to the 6th edition, second printing of the APA manual, offers examples for the general format of APA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the reference page. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, (6th ed., 2nd printing).

Referencing books in APA - OWLL - Massey University

After consulting with publication specialists at the APA, OWL staff learned that the APA 6th edition, first printing sample papers have incorrect examples of Running heads on pages after the title page. This will take you to the APA site where you can find a complete list of all the errors in the APA's 6th edition style guide.

Footnotes Sample Page - A Research Guide for Students

Type your title in upper and lowercase letters centered in the upper half of the page. APA recommends that your title be no more than 12 words in length and that it should not contain abbreviations or words that serve no purpose. Your title may take up one or two lines. All text on the title page, and throughout your paper, should be double-spaced.