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Downs, R. J., 1961: Photo-control of anthocyanin synthesis in dark-grown milo seedlings

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Chlorophyll fluorescence attributes are also excellent measures of stress-induced damage to photosystem II (PSII) and an effective approach toward understanding of the inhibitory effects of salt stress on photosynthetic apparatus. Similar to our results, Ashraf and Ashraf observed that the wheat cultivar with higher level of salt tolerance was able to maintain higher Fv/Fm under salt stress than the less tolerant one relating to better protection of chlorophyll loss. Moreover, anthocyanin-rich leaves of rice were reported to maintain higher radical scavenging activities, less membrane leakage and higher efficiency of PSII photochemistry under photooxidation treatments compared with the green rice leaves.

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Expression of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes in rice leaves: Results of the analysis of anthocyanin biosynthetic in response to NaCl relative to the expression in the control plants using quantitative real-time PCR are shown in .

Anthocyanins are a diverse group of secondary metabolites that can be produced in response to and have crucial roles in stress protection. The presence of phenyl groups on flavonoids including anthocyanins contributed to increase salt-tolerance in sugarcane by protecting cells from ion-induced oxidative damage by binding with the toxic ions. In NaCl-exposed leaves of the tolerant cultivar, the ability of adaptation to salt stress is associated with higher concentrations of total anthocyanins (). However for the sensitive cultivar KKU-LLR-039 the accumulation of anthocyanin was enhanced only after a short-term exposure to salt stress (2 days after salt treatment). After 4, 6 and 8 days of stress total anthocyanins were markedly reduced in this cultivar. Accordingly, KKU-LLR-039 cannot accumulate high enough anthocyanin content to protect cells against damage due to ion toxicity and s and hence it suffered from more severe membrane damage leading to higher electrolyte leakage rate (). Anthocyanin accumulation has been reported in several plants exposed to salt stress such as rice,, tomato and red cabbage seedling and transgenic potato. In each case higher content of anthocyanin under stress was related to higher antioxidant potentials and salt tolerance.

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Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor affecting growth and productivity of crop plants in many areas of the world. Salt stress is an important environmental stress that causes a low soil water potential, accumulation of toxic sodium ions, nutritional imbalance and subsequently led to an over-accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) which cause a whole range of cellular oxidative damages. Plant responses to high salinity are rather complicated, involving multiple processes and mechanisms including increased amount of anthocyanins associated with increased salt tolerance,. Recently, it was proposed that anthocyanin synthesis regulated by sucrose-signaling pathway under various types of abiotic and biotic stress not only serves as direct antioxidants but also as secondary signals involved in counteracting multiple stresses in plants.

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In this study, the effects of salt stress on physiological responses including anthocyanin accumulation and the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in seedlings of two cultivars of black glutinous rice ( L.) differing in the levels of salinity tolelance and leaf anthocyanin were investigated.

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The rate of escape from red - far red reversibility for anthocyanin synthesis was lower in dark-grown than in light-pretreated seedlings of cabbage (cv.